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Berlin, R.J. (1977). British Journal of Psychiatry. CXXVI, 1975: Attainment and Adjustment in Two Geographical Areas: III. Some Factors Accounting for Area Differences. Michael Rutter; Bridget Yule; David Quinton; Olwen Rowlands; William Yule; Michael Berger. Pp. 520-533.. Psychoanal Q., 46:551.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: British Journal of Psychiatry. CXXVI, 1975: Attainment and Adjustment in Two Geographical Areas: III. Some Factors Accounting for Area Differences. Michael Rutter; Bridget Yule; David Quinton; Olwen Rowlands; William Yule; Michael Berger. Pp. 520-533.

(1977). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 46:551

British Journal of Psychiatry. CXXVI, 1975: Attainment and Adjustment in Two Geographical Areas: III. Some Factors Accounting for Area Differences. Michael Rutter; Bridget Yule; David Quinton; Olwen Rowlands; William Yule; Michael Berger. Pp. 520-533.

Robert J. Berlin

The third paper in this group is an attempt to analyze factors associated with the findings in the previous papers, within the two specific areas as well as between areas. Marital discord, particularly when severe and when of disruptive, quarrelsome nature, as opposed to apathy and indifference, was significantly higher among parents of children with psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric disorder (not paternal) was strongly associated with child psychiatric disorder on the Isle of Wight. In London this did not hold, as there was a high rate of psychiatric disorder in the mothers of "normal" children. However, the average score of mothers of children with disorders in both populations was considered significantly higher. Antisocial behavior in the fathers was associated with disorder in both groups of children. Disorders were more common, significantly in the London population, when "the father had a laboring or semi-skilled manual job." Large family size was also associated with children with psychiatric disorder and reading retardation. While the schools with the greater percentage of behaviorally deviant children had a higher rate of teacher and pupil turnover, the evidence for these as causal factors is less strong. Four sets of variables—family discord, parental deviance, social disadvantage and certain school characteristics—"were associated with child deviance and disorder within the two areas and in almost all cases these same factors also differentiated between the two communities." They are felt to be causal. The paper concludes with an examination of alternative explanations of a biological nature. There is circumstantial evidence, based on height differentials, that the nutrition of children of the London area was inferior to those of the Isle of Wight.

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Article Citation

Berlin, R.J. (1977). British Journal of Psychiatry. CXXVI, 1975. Psychoanal. Q., 46:551

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