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Calef, V. Weinshel, E.M. (1981). Some Clinical Consequences of Introjection: Gaslighting. Psychoanal Q., 50:44-66.

(1981). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 50:44-66

Some Clinical Consequences of Introjection: Gaslighting

Victor Calef, M.D. and Edward M. Weinshel, M.D.


In the regression from the oedipal impulses some, perhaps many, people retreat to the introjective (oral) mode of defense. This and other defensive maneuvers culminate in a variety of behaviors which have been extensively and variously described in the literature. The authors describe, under the rubric of "gaslighting," an outcome of the introjective defense in which a victim and a victimizer join psychological modes in expressing and defending themselves against oral, incorporative impulses (greed), each in his or her own way.

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