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Blank, H.R. (1983). The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, XXXV. 1980: Consciousness of Self and Painful Self-Consciousness. Beulah Kramer Amsterdam and Morton Levitt. Pp. 67-83.. Psychoanal Q., 52:310.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, XXXV. 1980: Consciousness of Self and Painful Self-Consciousness. Beulah Kramer Amsterdam and Morton Levitt. Pp. 67-83.

(1983). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 52:310

The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, XXXV. 1980: Consciousness of Self and Painful Self-Consciousness. Beulah Kramer Amsterdam and Morton Levitt. Pp. 67-83.

H. Robert Blank

The authors review data from recent infant research of others in addition to their own. These lead to an extension of current formulations regarding narcissism, particularly the development of shame. While Amsterdam and Levitt do not minimize the mother-child relationship, they do emphasize three additional factors in the second year of life: the beginning of representational thinking, the onset of upright locomotion, and the start of intentional genital behavior. These interacting developments accentuate the self-other polarity and contribute to the separation-individuation process.

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Article Citation

Blank, H.R. (1983). The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, XXXV. 1980. Psychoanal. Q., 52:310

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