Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
:
Login
Tip: To zoom in or out on PEP-Web…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

Are you having difficulty reading an article due its font size? In order to make the content on PEP-Web larger (zoom in), press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the plus sign (+). Press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the minus sign (-) to make the content smaller (zoom out). To go back to 100% size (normal size), press Ctrl (⌘Command on the Mac) + 0 (the number 0).

Another way on Windows: Hold the Ctrl key and scroll the mouse wheel up or down to zoom in and out (respectively) of the webpage. Laptop users may use two fingers and separate them or bring them together while pressing the mouse track pad.

Safari users: You can also improve the readability of you browser when using Safari, with the Reader Mode: Go to PEP-Web. Right-click the URL box and select Settings for This Website, or go to Safari > Settings for This Website. A large pop-up will appear underneath the URL box. Look for the header that reads, “When visiting this website.” If you want Reader mode to always work on this site, check the box for “Use Reader when available.”

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

(1983). Meetings of the New York Psychoanalytic Society. Psychoanal Q., 52:660-661.

(1983). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 52:660-661

Meetings of the New York Psychoanalytic Society

January 26, 1982. ON THE CONCEPT OF PRIMITIVE DEFENSES. Martin S. Willick, M.D.

Dr. Willick stated that "the term 'primitive,' when applied to defensive processes, currently carries with it assumptions which may interface with our clinical work and theoretical understanding. One assumption is that a so-called primitive defense used by adults is the same as a defense used by a young child. Another is that the use of such primitive defense means that the patient's pathology can be traced back to an early period of childhood when the defensive operation is presumed to be predominant. A third is that the presence of such a defense is indicative of serious psychopathology." Dr. Willick proposed an alternate view: "defense should not be designated as being primitive or mature without an evaluation of the total ego organization. What appears to be the operation of a primitive defense in an adult depends not merely on the type of defense which is employed but on the nature of the ego involved. The sicker a patient is, the more we see poor ego integration, poor organization and breakdown of ego functions. The defensive processes called into service in such patients appear primitive primarily because of the low level of ego functioning." Dr. Willick reviewed the history of the concept of a hierarchy of defense mechanisms and concluded that the most common primitive defenses are denial and projection. "More recently splitting and projective identification, along with projective-introjective techniques, are often included under this heading.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.