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(1986). Psychoanalytic Study of Child. XXXVII, 1982: Preoedipal and Early Oedipal Components of the Superego. Robert D. Gillman. Pp. 273-281.. Psychoanal Q., 55:369-369.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Psychoanalytic Study of Child. XXXVII, 1982: Preoedipal and Early Oedipal Components of the Superego. Robert D. Gillman. Pp. 273-281.

(1986). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 55:369-369

Psychoanalytic Study of Child. XXXVII, 1982: Preoedipal and Early Oedipal Components of the Superego. Robert D. Gillman. Pp. 273-281.

Gillman describes the superego, like the ego, as an organization of functions. Using Novey's concept of a "functional pattern of introjections" and Gould's "internal morality system," he views the superego in the late oedipal period as an internal and autonomous structure and regulator of behavior. The genesis and development of the superego and its functions are a "step-wise growth through identifications with innumerable bits and pieces of object experience." Aggression and restraint of instinct are related to 1) identification with the aggressor; 2) identification with the frustrator; 3) turning passive into active; 4) reaction formation; 5) turning aggression onto the self; 6) the inhibition of aggression. For loving and the beloved, Gillman lists identification with the comforter, with the provider, and with the protector. He gives examples, from the work of Spitz and Parens, of prohibitions and restraints seen in early precursors. Finally, he cites Gould's 1972 study of two groups of three- to five-year-old nursery school children: those showing predominantly primary identifications and others showing superego development. The first group was characterized by identifications with the aggressor, turning aggression onto the self, and acting out. They also showed evidence of delayed internalization, little empathy, little wish to please, global self-criticism, and decreased sublimation. The second group showed identifications with the comforter, protector, and provider. These children manifested a wish to please, increased internalization, sublimation, and empathic response, and limited self-criticism.


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Article Citation

(1986). Psychoanalytic Study of Child. XXXVII, 1982. Psychoanal. Q., 55:369-369

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WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.