Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To zoom in or out on PEP-Web…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

Are you having difficulty reading an article due its font size? In order to make the content on PEP-Web larger (zoom in), press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the plus sign (+). Press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the minus sign (-) to make the content smaller (zoom out). To go back to 100% size (normal size), press Ctrl (⌘Command on the Mac) + 0 (the number 0).

Another way on Windows: Hold the Ctrl key and scroll the mouse wheel up or down to zoom in and out (respectively) of the webpage. Laptop users may use two fingers and separate them or bring them together while pressing the mouse track pad.

Safari users: You can also improve the readability of you browser when using Safari, with the Reader Mode: Go to PEP-Web. Right-click the URL box and select Settings for This Website, or go to Safari > Settings for This Website. A large pop-up will appear underneath the URL box. Look for the header that reads, “When visiting this website.” If you want Reader mode to always work on this site, check the box for “Use Reader when available.”

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Young, M. (1989). Heinz Hartmann, M.D.: an Introduction and Appreciation. Psychoanal Q., 58:521-525.

(1989). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 58:521-525

Heinz Hartmann, M.D.: an Introduction and Appreciation

Marianne Young, M.D.

Heinz Hartmann's Ich Psychologie und Anpassungsproblem was published fifty years ago in Germany. Nineteen years later, in 1958, the essay was translated into English by David Rapaport under the title, Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation. It appeared as part of the Monograph Series of the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Heinz Hartmann's essay may be regarded as a quasi-blueprint which Hartmann hoped would be elaborated in subsequent years by way of multidisciplinary research, the results of which would be brought under the umbrella of psychoanalytic theory. The main avenues of approach recommended, in addition to psychoanalysis proper, were observation of children, psychophysics, biology, and sociology.

In his "Reminiscences," Hartman paid tribute to Freud's far-reaching contributions to ego psychology and proposed to follow up on what Freud had tentatively indicated. He thought he was prepared for the task by virtue of his academic background in psychology and biology (Swerdloff, 1963). In Hartman's (1939) words, "At present we no longer doubt that psychoanalysis can claim to be a general psychology" (p. 4) and that "[m]any of us expect psychoanalysis to become a general developmental psychology" (p. 8).

The essay brings into sharp relief Hartmann's concept of ego autonomy, the correlated conflict-free sphere, and their genetic sources. In his opinion, the ego is an adaptive organ, a biological element in human psychology. The ego and the id develop from an undifferentiated matrix. The ego develops, in part, free of conflict, and it is endowed with primary autonomy.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2021, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.