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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Jacobs, D.H. (1992). A Critical Review of Psychoanalytic Adult Developmental Psychology. Psychoanal. Contemp. Thought, 15(4):523-547.

(1992). Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 15(4):523-547

A Critical Review of Psychoanalytic Adult Developmental Psychology

Dr. David H. Jacobs, Ph.D.

Clinical work with adult patients cannot serve as the basis of a general, non-clinical psychoanalytic view of adult life. The work of psychotherapy of necessity minimizes the adult patient's manifold dependence on the realities of the social environment, but outside the framework of treatment it must be recognized that the modal adult in contemporary American society is beset by sources of oppression and deficiency that cannot fail to substantially affect the individual's experience of life, as well as psychological capacities as assessed from the standpoint of an observer. Conspicuous sources of environmental oppression or deficiency are identified in two major realms: conditions of working life and total family income, and advanced social disintegration, especially with regard to the durability of social bonds, including marriage. A major emphasis on the necessity for defense against the assaults of a largely oppressive social environment constitutes a necessary corrective for the excessively interior and insulated view of the adult in society. As matters stand, the extant literature has de facto become a resource for mystification about the modal adult in American society.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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