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Hamilton, N.G. (1981). Empathic Understanding. Psychoanal. Inq., 1(3):417-422.

(1981). Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 1(3):417-422

Empathic Understanding

N. Gregory Hamilton, M.D.


Two examples of empathic understanding were examined and found to be derivable from four elements: (1) observation of a patient; (2) observation of a child; (3) observation of the observer's experience; and (4) relatedness, a term which refers to parallels among the above three observations. This view demonstrates empathic understanding to be basically similar to other modes of understanding.

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