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Greenspan, S.I. (1982). Three Levels of Learning: A Developmental Approach to “Awareness” and Mind-Body Relations. Psychoanal. Inq., 1(4):659-694.

(1982). Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 1(4):659-694

Three Levels of Learning: A Developmental Approach to “Awareness” and Mind-Body Relations

Stanley I. Greenspan, M.D.


Levels of awareness and the broader generic issue of the relationship between mind and body have been addressed from many philosophical and scientific perspectives. An especially useful approach may emerge as we continue to gain a better understanding of human development through all stages of the course of life. An infant's overall functioning is organized primarily along the lines of basic bodily (biological) processes. But as development proceeds toward adulthood, mental (psychological) life and conscious awareness play an increasingly important role in influencing behavior.

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