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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Lichtenberg, J.D. (1982). Reflections on the First Year of Life. Psychoanal. Inq., 1(4):695-729.

(1982). Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 1(4):695-729

Reflections on the First Year of Life

Joseph D. Lichtenberg, M.D.

Hartmann, who viewed psychological events with a remarkable broadness of perspective, stated that in the infant a state of preadaptedness exists prior to the point in its development where the organism can function on its own to secure its adaptation (1939p. 49; 1956pp. 245-247). In delineating what he meant by “preadapted,” Hartmann pointed to the capacity of the infantile mind to perceive, remember, and control movements—functions that he conceived to be primary (inborn) and autonomous (developing as a separate organization in response to stimuli, rather than developing as a result of conflict). Hartmann reasoned that functions that exist prior to a conflict must be present to give psychological registry and meaning to the impulses that give rise to the conflict. As Freud had stated, conflict is created when a desire to re-experience satisfaction must be subjected to delay. Hartmann's conception of preadaptedness was largely inferential and deductive.

That a state of preadaptedness exists in the infant is confirmed by the vast amount of research data on neonates and older infants that has accumulated, principally since 1960.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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