Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
:
Login
Tip: To zoom in or out on PEP-Web…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

Are you having difficulty reading an article due its font size? In order to make the content on PEP-Web larger (zoom in), press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the plus sign (+). Press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the minus sign (-) to make the content smaller (zoom out). To go back to 100% size (normal size), press Ctrl (⌘Command on the Mac) + 0 (the number 0).

Another way on Windows: Hold the Ctrl key and scroll the mouse wheel up or down to zoom in and out (respectively) of the webpage. Laptop users may use two fingers and separate them or bring them together while pressing the mouse track pad.

Safari users: You can also improve the readability of you browser when using Safari, with the Reader Mode: Go to PEP-Web. Right-click the URL box and select Settings for This Website, or go to Safari > Settings for This Website. A large pop-up will appear underneath the URL box. Look for the header that reads, “When visiting this website.” If you want Reader mode to always work on this site, check the box for “Use Reader when available.”

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Jaffe, D.S. (1982). Aggression: Instinct, Drive, Behavior. Psychoanal. Inq., 2(1):77-94.

(1982). Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 2(1):77-94

Aggression: Instinct, Drive, Behavior

Daniel S. Jaffe, M.D.

That a satisfactory theory of aggression still eludes scientists in the field of animal and human behavior is evident from the frequently polemical tones encountered in the ever-growing literature of the various disciplines. There is no consensus on whether aggression is innate or learned, appetitive or instrumental, or what its role and moving force may be in developmental sequences in man. In my discussion of some familiar issues and my attempt to present some synthesizing viewpoints regarding aggression, the role of classes of instinct in psychoanalytic theory and the place to be assigned to aggression constitute my primary focus. I reconsider (1) some aspects of Freud's early and later formulations of instinct; (2) a basis for revising the classification of instincts, including some further distinctions between instincts and drives; and (3) a new approach to the place of aggression in this reformulation of instincts.

Instincts and Drives

The problems connected with any attempt to translate the word Trieb, which Freud used to refer to instincts, have been discussed by Strachey (1966) who stated that his choice of the term instinct was based on its very vagueness. He viewed this as an advantage because the term would be flexible enough to encompass many meanings.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2021, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.