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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Schöttler, C. (1998). Self-Psychological Aspects in the Treatment of Psychosomatic Disorders. Psychoanal. Inq., 18(3):403-423.

(1998). Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 18(3):403-423

Self-Psychological Aspects in the Treatment of Psychosomatic Disorders

Christel Schöttler, M.D.

The treatment process of a patient with Crohn's disease (Enteritis granulomatosa regionalis) is presented in order to illustrate the therapeutic-technical approach from the standpoint of psychoanalytical self psychology. Crohn's disease is a chronic, inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder that can involve all regions from mouth to anus, but predominantly affects the lower intestinal tract. The disease, now considered to be autoimmune, progresses in stages and responds to immunosuppressive drugs. Yet neither the etiology nor the pathogenesis has been entirely elucidated, although there are indications of a genetic predisposition. Immunological processes that sustain the inflammation argue in favor of a predominantly IgG2 antibody response to an exogenous, possibly microbial-bacterial antigen that triggers an as yet unknown initial event. A significant role is attributed to nutrition; during acute phases artificial feeding is necessary.


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