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Klein, C. Milrod, B.L. Busch, F.N. Levy, K.N. Shapiro, T. (2003). A Preliminary Study of Clinical Process in Relation to Outcome in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Panic Disorder. Psychoanal. Inq., 23(2):308-331.

(2003). Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 23(2):308-331

A Preliminary Study of Clinical Process in Relation to Outcome in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Panic Disorder

Cara Klein, Ph.D., Barbara L. Milrod, M.D., Fredric N. Busch, M.D., Kenneth N. Levy, Ph.D. and Theodore Shapiro, M.D.

This study identified psychotherapeutic processes that relate meaningfully to psychotherapeutic outcome for patients with panic disorder undergoing Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP) (Milrod et al., 1997). Subjects were 21 patients who participated in an open clinical trial of PFPP (Milrod et al., 2000; Milrod et al., 2001). The Interactive Process Assessment (IPA) (Klein, Milrod, and Busch, 1999), a process measure developed specifically to identify the process of PFPP, was used. Process-outcome relationships were calculated between process factors at early, mid, and late treatment and outcome measures at termination. Results showed that the therapist's focus on the transference late in treatment was associated with a decrease in panic symptoms. Transference focus early in the treatment, however, was correlated with an increase in related symptomatology, as measured by the HAM-A and SDS. It was unclear from the present study how focusing on panic symptomatology affected the treatment. This process might be better investigated by comparing this aspect of PFPP with alternative psychotherapies.

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