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Bowlby, J. (1984). Psychoanalysis as a Natural Science. Psychoanal. Psychol., 1(1):7-21.

(1984). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 1(1):7-21

Psychoanalysis as a Natural Science

John Bowlby, M.D.

Despite Freud's unwavering intention that psychoanalysis should conform to the requirements of a natural science, this aim has not been realized. Some analysts hold the aim have been mistaken. Others believe it can and should be achieved, proposing that traditional metapsychology be replaced by a new conceptual framework utilizing modern concepts not available to Freud. Utilizing data obtained from current findings in developmental psychology based on direct observation of parent-child interaction as well as from therapeutic sessions, a possible framework is sketched using principles derived from ethology, control theory, and human information processing.

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