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Schuller, R. Crits-Christoph, P. Connolly, M.B. (1991). The Resistance Scale: Background and Psychometric Properties. Psychoanal. Psychol., 8(2):195-211.

(1991). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 8(2):195-211

The Resistance Scale: Background and Psychometric Properties

Ronna Schuller, Ph.D., Paul Crits-Christoph, Ph.D. and Mary Beth Connolly, B.A

The purpose of this study was to develop and examine a scale for measuring the type and quantity of resistance in dynamic psychotherapy. We present theoretical background and psychometric characteristics of the rating scale. The 19-item Resistance Scale was rated by clinical judges on verbatim excerpts from therapy sessions. Results indicated that resistance is a multidimensional construct. Principal components analysis revealed four resistance subtypes: Abrupt/Shifting, Flat/Halting, Oppositional, and Vague/Doubting. Analysis of variables affecting scale variance revealed that the scale measures not only episodic resistance, but to a certain extent stable patient characteristics as well.

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