Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To see papers related to the one you are viewing…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When there are articles or videos related to the one you are viewing, you will see a related papers icon next to the title, like this: RelatedPapers32Final3For example:


Click on it and you will see a bibliographic list of papers that are related (including the current one). Related papers may be papers which are commentaries, responses to commentaries, erratum, and videos discussing the paper. Since they are not part of the original source material, they are added by PEP editorial staff, and may not be marked as such in every possible case.


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Mordecai, E.M. (1991). A Classification of Empathic Failures for Psychotherapists and Supervisors. Psychoanal. Psychol., 8(3):251-262.

(1991). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 8(3):251-262

A Classification of Empathic Failures for Psychotherapists and Supervisors

Edna M. Mordecai, Ph.D.

Empathic failure is a normal characteristic of all human relationships. In psychotherapy and the supervision of psychotherapy, empathic failures can have a negative effect; however, with appropriate management, these failures can represent an important opportunity for a therapeutic experience. Due to a variety of factors embedded in the transference/countertransference ambience of therapy, empathic failures are often obscured and neglected by therapists and supervisors. This article proposes a classification for six types of empathic failures according to their sources. It suggests the range of failures within each type, and specifies the obscuring factors, the common errors in response, and the possible interventions for each type of empathic failure.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.