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Slap, J.W. (1999). Diversity and Direction in Psychoanalytic Technique: Fred Pine, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998, viii + 234 pp., $25.00.. Psychoanal. Psychol., 16(3):487-490.

(1999). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 16(3):487-490

Diversity and Direction in Psychoanalytic Technique: Fred Pine, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998, viii + 234 pp., $25.00.

Review by:
Joseph W. Slap, M.D.

In this work, Fred Pine devotes himself to an exploration of psychoanalytic technique and does so with great distinction. Mirabile dictu, the book lives up to the lavish praise from distinguished colleagues, in this case, Warren Poland and Judith Chused, on the back of the dust jacket. Poland writes, “The wisdom in this respectful overview of diversity in technique is based on broad clinical experience, serious study, and personal modesty-all expressed with a lucidity rare in professional writing,” and Chused tells us that

he recognizes that what may be useful with a patient at one moment may not be indicated at another; that not only do patients differ from one another, but their capacity to understand and utilize the analyst's interventions differ from one moment to another. In writing an excellent treatise on technique, Pine is open-minded about the question of the model or models of the mind that underlie technique.

For a decade, Pine has been writing of four psychologies, namely, models of the mind organized around drives, ego functioning, object relationships, and the self. He believes that these are separate psychologies that cannot be integrated on a theoretical level but feels that on the clinical level they are additive and complement one another. Although he acknowledges that some hold to a single model of psychology rather than multiple psychologies, he refers to this alternative in pejorative terms, for example, he finds “on difference in arriving at a particular intervention when working with a ‘four psychologies model’” (p.

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