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Karon, B.P. (2004). Insights, Hope, Kindness, and Confusion: Odyssey of a Psychoanalyst. Psychoanal. Psychol., 21(4):541-553.

(2004). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21(4):541-553

Insights, Hope, Kindness, and Confusion: Odyssey of a Psychoanalyst

Bertram P. Karon, Ph.D.

Insights from the author's previous systematic research and psychoanalytic observations are summarized. In a nationwide Gallup sample, segregation was found destructive to African Americans and Whites, although differently so. Clinical experience delineated the number 4 as a symbol, the helpfulness of psychoanalysis, and meanings of schizophrenic symptoms. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) pathogenesis (unconsciously based hurtful parenting) differentiated both parents of schizophrenics and inadequate therapists. A controlled project demonstrated that 70 sessions of psychoanalytic therapy were more helpful than medication with respect to schizophrenic thought disorder, hospitalization, and living a more human life. Masked clinical judgments from Rorschachs, TATs, and interviews were found to be valid. Clinical papers described treating lower socioeconomic status patients, not eating, the 4 bases of delusions, and the necessity to be kind, tolerant, stubborn, and confused and to avoid abstractions.

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