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Mills, J. (2004). Clarifications on Trieb: Freud's Theory of Motivation Reinstated. Psychoanal. Psychol., 21(4):673-677.

(2004). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21(4):673-677

Clarifications on Trieb: Freud's Theory of Motivation Reinstated Related Papers

Jon Mills, Ph.D., PsyD, ABPP

Freud never used the term instinct to characterize human motivation, despite continued misrepresentations and commentaries that claim otherwise. Instead he described the process by which unconsciously enlisted variants emanate from their immediate, embodied sentient nature and evolve in both form and content to produce a robustly complex and overdetermined system of human development and social motivation. Freud's drive theory therefore remains the paragon for potentially explaining all facets of intrapsychic and interpersonal phenomena, from the most base and primordial urges of unconscious desire to the most cultivated and exalted dimensions of mind, individuation, culture, and intersubjective life.

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