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Campos, R.C. Besser, A. Blatt, S.J. (2011). The Relationships between Defenses and Experiences of Depression: An Exploratory Study. Psychoanal. Psychol., 28(2):196-208.

(2011). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 28(2):196-208

The Relationships between Defenses and Experiences of Depression: An Exploratory Study

Rui C. Campos, Ph.D., Avi Besser, Ph.D. and Sidney J. Blatt, Ph.D.

This study examined the relationships between defenses and depressive experiences. Two questionnaires, in counterbalanced order, were administered to a community sample of 205 adults: the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; S. Blatt, J. D'Afflitti, & D. Quinlan 1976, 1979) and the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI; D. Ihilevich & G. C. Gleser, 1986). Although turning against self related significantly to both depressive experiences of dependency, especially the less mature neediness in comparison with the more mature connectedness, and self-criticism, other types of defenses, as measured by the DMI, differentiated between interpersonal and self-critical experiences of depression. Results are discussed from psychodynamic and developmental perspectives.

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