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Teslaar, T.S. (1914). Imago: Zeitschrift Für Die Anwendung Der Psychoanalyse Auf Die Geisteswissenschaften.. Psychoanal. Rev., 1(3):351-353.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Imago: Zeitschrift Für Die Anwendung Der Psychoanalyse Auf Die Geisteswissenschaften.
1. The Role of Philosophical Views and Training in the Further Development of the Psychoanalytical Movement. prof. james J. putnam.
2. Feeling for Nature. dr. hanns sachs.
3. The Psychology of Dramatic Construction. leo kaplan.
4. The Evolution from Pathography to Psychography. dr. J. sadger.
5. Symbolism of Tairy Tales. herbert silberer.
6. Psychoanalytic Observations on a Journey through England. dr. alphonse maeder.
1.The Role of Philosophical Views and Training in the Further Development of the Psychoanalytical Movement.—This paper, read at the Third International Psychoanalytical Congress, held at Weimar, discusses the wider philosophical implications of psychoanalytical theories.
The current theories of psychoanalysis owe their efficiency chiefly to the biogenetic viewpoint which psychoanalytic practice implies. Putnam advocates a clearer recognition of this underlying biogenetic principle. Psychoanalysis would be the gainer if we should recognize, once for all, that not the external physical series of events but the internal processes constitute the crux of life. True, Kant has pointed out the helplessness of all metaphysics as a scientific discipline; it may be that, for fundamental principles, we must content ourselves with conceptual artefacts and symbols, but science, too, makes use of similar artefacts and symbols of thought so long as they help the conceptual treatment of our experiential data. Of course, physical and psychic process may be reasonably conceived as but two sides of the same existence, not unlike the convex and concave sides of a lens, as, indeed, Fechner contended they must be. Whatever the view which the psychoanalyst may feel justified to embrace Dr. Putnam conceives that it is his duty thus to square
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principles and practice with reference to some definite fundamental conception about life and the world processes about us.
2.Feeling for Nature.—A psychoanalysis of the esthetic phenomenon loosely termed feeling for nature (Naturgefühl) on the basis of two widely divergent examples, Homer and Goethe, and therefore typical of two totally different aspects of this emotion.
As would be expected the attitude towards nature of the ancients differs in many radical respects from ours. For one thing the Homeric Naturgefiihl, for instance, is characterized by a greater tendency towards personification of natural objects and qualities, a phenomenon particularly characteristic of the animistic stage of thought. The origin of this mental attitude is traced by the author back to the very early narcisistic libido of the individual.
The stage of thought immediately following the animistic attitude is brought about through a gradual change from the narcisistic libido to the love of objects and in this transition may be found the primordial type of repression.
The attitude towards nature of the ancients presents the following salient features: all pleasurable emotions evoked by nature in its manifold aspects are sexualized, in the sense that all such emotions are linked up with and derive their particular meaning from their admixture with the predominating libido of the subject. The un-pleasurable emotions about nature, through which, of course, the principle of reality breaks into recognition, blend and form the anxietyaffect. Thus a new means is established for the possible release of sexual tension. Of course, the tendency to personification rests upon a foundation typically affectivistic. On the basis of these considerations Sachs throws interesting side lights on the origin and meaning of animism.
In contrast with the ancient attitude which concerned itself largely with the object of the feeling for nature, the modern attitude towards nature accentuates the feeling itself. The object back of it stands out less ominously. But the relation of this feeling to sexuality is none the less clear, as has been pointed out long ago by Freud himself. Although we no longer personify inanimate objects and natural phenomena as grossly as did the ancients we still transfer our “emotions” and “moods” over to nature. Part of our repressed sexual cravings fined their expression in this emotional vivification of nature.
3.Psychology of Dramatic Construction.—The analogies between ordinary dreams and poetic constructions are very numerous. The author illustrates this and the fact that the psychic motivation of the two is the same by the use of a number of examples.
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The “Prometheus Bound” epic of Aeschylos is very much like a dream in its psychic mechanism. The roles of Elizabeth and Venus in Wagner's “Tannhauser” illustrate the ever prevalent dualism of the erotic impulse—a dualism which Kaplan traces also through the personal life of Wagner.
The “Agammemnon” of Aeschylos and Ibsen's “Baumeister Solness” depict at bottom, the conflict between the polygamic tendencies still active in man and the socially imposed necessity of conforming to a monogramic theory of sexual ethics.
4.The Evolution from Pathography to Psychography.—A cursive narration of the development of our knowledge concerning the psychical motivations of genius with particular reference to the improvements in the methods of study brought about through psychoanalysis.
Previous to Freud and his school this branch of “applied” psychology was in a state bordering on confusion. Hebel's poetic drama “Judith” is chosen as an example and the results obtained by the old method of pathography, largely worthless, are pointed out and contrasted with the psychoanalytic method of approach and its results. With the aid of the latter method we arrive at a definite understanding of the psychic motivations back of the drama and we may learn to appreciate the mental aspect of every detail in its construction.
5.Symbolism of Fairy Tales.—Dreams and fairy tales represent alike wish fulfillments. A number of dreams reported to Silberer are analyzed and the results compared with similar analyses of fairy tales and myths, the latter based on the work of Abraham and Riklin. The agreement between them is very striking.
6.Psychoanalytic Observations on a Journey through England.—An attempt to approach racial psychology through psychoanalytic principles. The observations are casual. A number of English traits are considered but without attempt at thorough treatment.
The author finds that the women's suffrage movement in England and the “mannish” tactics assumed by many of the English militants are the end results of long continued repression. The prevalence of dancing, sport, and hero-worship generally, also the over-valuation of self observable in England are narcisistic manifestations which furnish various collateral paths for the vicarious satisfaction of repressed libido.
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Teslaar, T.S. (1914). Imago: Zeitschrift Für Die Anwendung Der Psychoanalyse Auf Die Geisteswissenschaften.. Psychoanal. Rev., 1(3):351-353