1. Analysis of Sadism and Masochism: II. The Libidinous Sources of Masochism.—The author does not claim to lay bare any new etiology of , rather to show its and mechanism. In the first place it is necessary to discriminate between “feminine” and “masochistic.” There are normal women who are not masochistic. While from the point of view of masculine , feminine has a strong passive , “passive” and “masochistic” must be discriminated. As long as one speaks of the pleasant sensations which belong to the passive rǒle of the sexual act one speaks rightly of the passive of , but as soon as one speaks of the sexual gotten from non-sexual suffering or endurance one speaks rightly of . Similarly must be distinguished from the active of . “I distinguish sharply between , the passive sexual , and feminine .”
In agreement with Krafft-Ebing, the author finds that mostly manifests itself before . In exceptional cases its advent is later, and sometimes it shows itself in old age. But in these cases also many experiential elements go back to .
The next and most important question is, what part of the normal, infantile, “polymorphous perverse,” of the contains the germ of , and under what conditions will it develop? P. 109.
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Krafft-Ebing, without realizing the importance of , found the root of in the feminine of . According to the author it is in the infantile passive of that becoming fixed accounts for . This single mechanism is, however, not the only explanation of . There must be many active partial tendencies which become reversed and converted into passive ones. changes places with . It appears in the place of . Intensive masochists arise from sadistic families. “I know cases which in the course of treatment became almost exclusively sadists, so that I could observe the sudden change from to .”
As the result of analytic experience we can declare that develops from . There are many cases, however, in which and are not absolutely separated; towards some persons these cases are sadistic, while towards others they are masochistic.
From the answers of his patients the author concludes: and are distinguished not by the conditions of its appearance, not only through the kind of ideas of the individual, but also through a different quality of sexual sensation. In a great number of cases, not only is the sensational quality different, but the somatic localization in the male genitals different for the different ideas.
The author gives an account of a young man, a masochist, who practiced mental by picturing to himself typical masochistic scenes. Since this had led to ejaculation and intense end-. The patient could have only with a sadistic type of woman, during which he remained motionless until ejaculation. The surface of the penis was completely sexually anesthetic. During the years when he had practiced onanie he had found that if he touched his penis it interrupted the masochistic scenes and brought sadistic scenes—so he never touched it. During the treatment he came to normal and with the corresponding activity, the surface of his penis became sexually sensitive. The masochistic stimulation was localized in the perineum and continued from the penis root on one side to the posterior on the other. In four individuals who could have masochistic or sadistic ideas, the author found that in the first case the sexual sensation was towards the penis end and in the second case towards the perineum [should this not be reversed?].
The author has had little experience with sadomasochistic women, but in two cases, with sadistic ideas sensations were localized in the clitoris, while with masochistic ideas they were localized in the vulva and vagina.
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, therefore, appears when the passive sexual sensation communicates its peculiar of passive to the whole ego (ganzen Ich). The criterium of is hence the passive pleasurable ideas of the total “I.” and do not belong in the same category with partial inclinations or sexual components, to which they are usually assigned, but they correspond rather to the perverse side of what is usually called “love.”
“Passive” is a contradiction in terms, if means an or craving. But the distinction is made on the score of the of the , i. e., whether it is for an active or passive experience.
In opposition to Freud's contention that the must always be of a masculine nature, the author maintains that it may be feminine, if the is sensational in the female organ. “Passive is the craving for passive from all those organs whose sexual is associated with a passive end.”
Since the male member is normally an active agent, active ordinarily is associated with its functioning, but in the case of , where the organ is the passive recipient of sensations, masochistic ideas will become associated with what was a source of sadistic thoughts. In general where a sexual craving is satisfied by a tactile stimulation of a sensitive place one speaks of the passive of ; where this craving is satisfied by muscle activity or movement one speaks of an active sexual .
There is another sensation characteristic of the genitals: a pleasurable tension. In high-grade masochists this tension plays a large part. Tension has a passive and is satisfied by activity. This tension occupies a middle place between active and passive. Since the sexual sensation is subjectively a unity it takes in sadists an active and in masochists a passive.
One of the non-genital sources of masochistic is the bladder. The author says that pleasurable sensations, of a sexual nature (in Freud's sense) originate in the bladder leading to the so-called uretheral eroticism. Also the posteriors, and anal mucous membranes, are sources of passive sexual . In some individuals the sphincters give a pleasurable sensation in , so that one can speak of a muscle eroticism. According to Jekels, in men finds its root in anal eroticism.
The mouth is primarily active, leading to kissing, sucking, biting, etc. The skin as an erogenous zone predisposes to a certain, if not extreme, . To caresses belong a certain pleasurable sensation which comes from the skin.
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That and shame result in a tension- is associated probably with the fact that in the whole animal kingdom expresses itself in the secreting and loss of almost all excretions and secretions. In human beings this expression of is associated with an immature sexual organ as well as with other organs, which gives an important contribution to . This infantile may be a of .
If the totality of and tension is too strong for the individual to overcome, he takes a passive attitude towards it, as a whole, and in this consists .
2. The Nosology of Male Homosexuality.—The author thinks the first real step forward in the study of was taken by Freud in his “Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory.” But he thinks he does not completely explain the peculiarity of sexual constitution and peculiar experiences of manifest . The author acknowledges that he himself, in spite of such Kopfzerbrechens (!), is unable to solve the problem, but proposes only the right nosological classification for homosexual phenomena.
The term “homosexual” itself he considers collects different things unwarrantably. Sexual relations with the same sex is only a . It is probable that all which is included in the term “” presents a clinical unity. For instance, there are the two types of , active and passive. Of both one speaks of the “” of the sexual ; of “contrary” sexual sensations; of “perversions.” Of the active and passive types, only the passive deserves to be called “inverted.” He feels himself inverted, not only as to genitals, but in all relations to life. While as to the active homosexual, he feels himself a man, is energetic, only his “” is changed. The first might be called “-homoerotic” and the second “-homoerotic.”
The author has psychoanalyzed a number of male homoerotics. Instead of giving any histories he gives a sort of Galton-photograph of his impressions.
He feels first that “” and “” homoeroticism are essentially different conditions. The first is a true middle in sexual (in the sense of Magnus-Hirschfeld and his school), hence an anomaly of ; “-homoeroticism,” on the other hand, is a , and indeed, a .
The “-homoerotic” as a figures himself as a woman. He thus has an inverted œdipus . He wishes his to die so that he can take her place with his . Phantasies and play are expressions of this.
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The “-homoerotic,” however, is sexually aggressive very early, indeed, hetero-sexually aggressive. He matures intellectually young, and in his scientific fashions a number of infantile sexual theories. These form the foundation for his later compulsive . Besides these characteristics of and intellectuality he has a strong anal eroticism and koprophilism. From earliest , because of lewd relations with girls and attempts at , they are severely punished by their parents, repeatedly, and thus get to repress violent and rage. Thus the mechanism of transfer of to persons of the same sex is set in motion. During the the fondness for the female shows but with the increased passions of , it requires only the slightest reproof to turn the inclination to the other sex, i. e., male. This is due to the awakened aroused by the female.
The “-homoerotic” repeats the origin of his suffering in his relations to the physician. If the is positive there is an unexpected improvement after a very short treatment. But the patient relapses into homoeroticism at the slightest , and only with the beginning of this does the real analysis begin. If the is negative from the first, as is especially the case if the patient comes, not of his own accord, but at the advice of relations, then there elapses a long time before any real analysis can begin, and he wastes the hour with boastful and scornful accounts of his homosexual adventures. In phantasies of the “-homoerotic” the physician can take the place of man and woman, and .
The author says that in his experience no severe case of compulsive-homeoroticism has been completely cured. Important improvement, however, he has seen in many cases. He does think that compulsive-homoeroticism is curable, by , but that it will take at least a year.
The author does not feel that he has exhausted the -complexes by isolating these two types of — and , homoeroticism. His is achieved in removing a certain conceptual confusion.
3. Constitutional Basis of Locomotor Anxiety.—Whoever has attempted to investigate “locomotor ” by finds typical factors. For one thing, while the patient suffers from his , he also rules his by it. One important factor is the incestuous of the . The patient does not wish to separate himself from his love-. But the of the
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on one person does not explain all. Otherwise many more neurotics would suffer from this form of than do.
We are forced to the conclusion that in the case of neurotics who suffer from locomotor there is a special sexual constitution.
A patient who had suffered from a feeling he could not go on the street unless accompanied by his , or other intimates, said he enjoyed the going, the walking, if it were not interfered with by the . To go on the street felt like dancing. He had the greatest in dancing, and his pollution were often about dancing.
The activity of walking is often accompanied, in neurotics, by a sexual excitement, in particular by a stimulation of the genitals. The author quotes the case of Dr. Eitingon who suffered from what he called “compulsive walking.” The “negative” to this peculiar , appears to the author to be a which may be called “street-.”
The author conies to the conclusion that the who suffers from locomotor- does so because of an originally over-strong in walking. These patients have an especially strong in rhythm. The sexual connection is suggested by the declaration of one patient that a certain rhythm reminded him of the sexual rhythm. In part this was of masturbatory and in part of the rhythm of ejaculation.
One of the essential characteristics of these patients is a strong inclination to protect the “fore-.” They are patently .
Besides the due to the of active movement- there is also the suffering due to the passive movement . Such patients have had great in traveling.
The author speaks of having cured a severe case of “street and place” by . With the cure the patient gained great in traveling by land and sea. The author claims here to make one little step in the direction of answering the question of why the patient, so to speak, chooses one, rather than another form of . It is because, in the case above considered, the patients get an unusual “fore-” in motion itself.