1. A Child is Being Beaten.— Freud here gives another of his penetrating and illuminating discussions of human formation. This time bearing upon genesis of the sadomasochistic tendencies which in one guise or another are universal, even if with great variations in amperage, as it were. Certain cases of the in question show the relations between the “ of a is beaten” its pleasurable content, and direct onanistic gratification. Its analysis is protected behind much and shame and are attached to it. This type of usually has an early inception—five to six years—and frequently is related to school whippings. Later renewals of the are occasioned by reading of cruel whipping incidents. The interesting point arises as to the real significance of corporal punishment in the scheme of pedagogics. The attempt to get to any invariable formulations was not successful. The of a beaten, and this is the usual form—who, why, or where, or male or female, or another—these questions cannot always be answered; in fact, are rarely get-at-able, but analysis seems to show that such a , possibly accidental as to its inception, is preserved for gratification, and contains a trait of . Some one of the sex function has developed in advance of others, has then become fixed, withdrawn from further , and reveals itself in some anomaly. It need not have persisted, since , formation, or may have become effectual. If, however, persisting, one may expect lying behind a some such infantile factor. Others, like Binet, before psychoanalytic clarity entered, had observed the phenomena and shrewdly inferred its causation. The why had escaped. If the sexual which started earlier was the sadistic
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one, then the disposition to an obsessional results. This hypothesis has been frequently verified. The present remarks are founded upon a study of six cases, four women and two men. Two were obsessional neuroses, one very severe, the other milder; a third had some obsessional traits, the fourth a ; the fifth, a patient who was analyzed merely “because of an indecision in life.” What the sixth was does not appear. The present state of concerning the place the takes in the is still difficult of clear formulation.
Strictly speaking, Freud says, analytic work is only correct when it has succeeded in removing the amnesia which conceals from the adult his of his from about the second to the fifth year. This, as an that true is more important than therapeutic success, Freud believes cannot be overemphasized. Not that later impressions are unimportant, but these are known to the world, it is the importance of the amnesias of infantile which belongs to medical science to reveal. The physician must go deeper than the layman. The inherited libidinous factors get special stimulus between two and five and formation starts at this time. The phantasies of occur in this period; they are analytically revealed as an end process, however, and not an initial one. In presenting the general outlines of the scheme, drawn for convenience from the four female cases, Freud speaks of it as presenting typical features. The beaten is usually someone else in the early years, a brother or a sister, or their representatives. The sex is not first definitely detailed. The of the beater is hard to trace in the beginning, although it is adult; hence the weight is on the masochistic rather than the sadistic , apparently. Later it appears the girl's is the beater.
“My is the ” is then the form which it evolves; “the whom I hate” comes in a little later. are frequent, and a new form now puts the maker in the place of the hated —“My is me” and then “I am beaten by my .” It is now unmistakably masochistic and usually pleasurable. This second , Freud says, has not been actually found as yet; it is an analytic , yet none the less a necessity. A further (third) now carries over to teacher, and the person to a number of persons, boys, usually, in girls' phantasies. All kinds of substitutions enter and disguise the original pattern very markedly, but a new factor now commences to enter, and that is an erotic one, of highly pleasurable content.
Tracing the from the original œdipus situation, the and soon are manifest. The to the also exists side by side, sometimes exaggerated; she is not connected with the . (In a few instances coming to the reviewer's the has been the beater of the girl; how the
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took place has not yet been cleared up.) Now other children in the nursery become the rival objects—the wild of the period. beaten now is “ deprived of love and is a humiliation.” The agreeable feature of the comes in the intermediary form—“My does not love this other ; he only loves me.” It thus gratifies the 's ; the erotic compound then obtains reen for cement from the ego interests. As in Macbeth's witches—“not clearly sexual, nor in itself sadistic, but yet the stuff from which both will later come.” [See Johannsen's newer formulations regarding heredity, where an homologous is proposed to study the principles of heredity.—J.] The is at the service of an excitement which finds an outlet in the genitals (or a of them). Genital organization then is becoming manifest, and and incestuous phantasies, under many disguises, are present. These are nipped in the bud now by the repressive process. Some discernible external event disillusions the , or inner yearning not effectuating causes a reversal. A sense of now appears in as one of the products of of incestuous seeking (compare Fate in the CEdipus myth). Now the reversal of the older is explicable. He no longer loves me, hence the is me. The sense of turns the earlier sadistic to a later masochistic ”. Now the effects a meeting place between the sense of and the sexual love. It is not only the punishment for the forbidden genital , but a regressive substitute for it. This latter takes the masturbatory pathway of expression.
The second of the usually remains quite —in one male in this series it remained — beaten by the was consciously evoked as a stimulus for onanistic gratification. Freud here contributes an interesting remark (which could be studied to great advantage) of the differences in the number of necessary in the male and female. The may become in thinly disguised forms. An enormous number of superstructure formations are encountered, and need to be correlated. These cases, with numerous others, provide a point of attack upon the whole of the psychosexual factors. Further research is always bringing new vistas. Whether the origin of the infantile perversions is rooted exclusively in the œdipus is as yet but a tenable working hypothesis. Most analyses rarely get back beyond the sixth year, when the œdipus adjustment is supposedly already made. Hence, when a case of is claimed to be congenital in the of only sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-year inclinations, really little value can be attached to the idea. Thus far all the evidence goes to show that the œdipus factors can account for the features of the —is the base of the in Freud's terms; its scars are the starting point for
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the later arriving readjustments. Marcinowski (Zeitschrift f. Sexual-wissenschaften, 1918, IV) has made a lasting contribution to this general idea of the “feeling of inferiority” as a later of a narcissistic scar of this type. Freud then says that the phastasies of throw but little light on the genesis of : it is not the expression of an , but is a reversed . A complicated series of mechanisms are here revealed. Why onanism is made the nucleus of the sense of , as is so frequent clinically, receives much light in view of the analysis of the phastasy. Thus the sense of in the melancholic, as well as the querulous delusions in , may be resolved some day along these lines. In a sixth section of the paper Freud gives a resumé of the situation, saying that the mechanism in its essential outlines is deducable chiefly in the study of the female. The study of boys does not show a complete parallelism. The boy usually begins with “I am beaten by my ;” It corresponds to the second in the girl's . This is the emergent from an earlier “I am loved by my ,” which consciously later emerges as “I am beaten by my .” Thus the boy is always passive to the : a feminine attitude to the . Freud then discusses two theories—one based on the idea as affording the original between the opposing forces; the second Adler's , a variant of the former. They both break down, he thinks, when applied to the facts of the of . He concludes this most profitable study by saying that “the theory of , a theory based upon observation,” holds firmly to the view that the motive forces of must not be sexualized. Man's forms the nucleus of ; and whatever part of that heritage has to be left behind in the advance to later phases of , because it is useless or incompatible with what is new, and harmful to it, falls a victim to the process of . This selection is made more successfully with one group of than with the other. In virtue of special circumstances which have often been pointed out already, the latter group, that of sexual impulses, are able to defeat the intentions of , and to enforce their by substitutive structures of a disturbing kind. For this reason, , which is held under , acts as the chief impulsive force in the of ; and the essential part of its content, the œdipus , is the nuclear of neuroses. I hope that in this paper I have raised an expectation that the sexual aberrations of , as well as those of mature life, are ramifications of the same .