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Jelliffe, S.E. (1925). The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. Psychoanal. Rev., 12(1):108-120.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis
1. Freud, S. Certain Neurotic Mechanisms in Jealousy, Paranoia, and Homosexuality, 1-11.
2. Alexander, F. The Castration Complex in the Formation of Character. 11-43.
3. Sachs, H. The Tempest. 43-89.
4. Freud, Anna. The Relation of Beating Phantasies to the Day Dream. 89-103.
6. Abstracts: Book Reviews.
1. Freud, S. Neurotic Mechanisms in Jealousy, Paranoia, and Homosexuality.—Jealousy is one of those affective states, like grief, that may be described as normal. If anyone appears to be without it, the inference is justified that it has undergone severe repression and consequently plays all the greater part in the unconscious mental life. The instances of abnormally intense jealousy met with in analytic work reveal themselves as constructed of three layers. These are here described as (1) competitive or normal jealousy, (2) projected, and (3) delusional jealousy.
Freud says regarding normal or competitive jealousy it is essentially compounded of grief (the pain caused by the thought of losing the loved object), and the narcissistic wound. Further of feelings of enmity against the successful rival and of a variable amount of self-criticism which tries to hold the person himself accountable for his loss. Although within the range of “normal” this jealousy is not rational for it has its deeply rooted unconscious components and shows early inadequacies in the evolution of the Œdipus situation. Freud points out that this jealousy not infrequently is experienced bisexually; here early homoerotic components are concerned.
The second or projected type of jealousy is derived in both men and women either from their actual unfaithfulness or from repressed impulses toward such. Marriage fidelity is maintained, for the most, in the face of continual temptation. Anyone who denies this in himself seeks relief by projection. He also absolves his conscience by making his partner the guilty one in consciousness. She, or he, is not much better than the
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jealous person. The social conventions permit a certain amount of flirtatiousness to thus handle this tendency and the desire (floating libido) which would go out to the new object is gratified by a kind of turning back to the object already possessed. The jealous person, however, is not tolerant of this conventional tolerance. He wants to make an issue on the “flirtation” and refuses to see it, in its usual aspects, as a safeguard against actual infidelity. This type of projected jealousy is amenable to treatment, but shades over imperceptably into the true delusional type of jealousy. Here also are unfaithful impulses under strong repression, but the object of the libidinous tendencies is homosexual. Paranoid forms show this type of delusional jealousy. The formula says “indeed I do not love him,” i.e., have homoerotic wishes “she loves him.” Hence the patient becomes jealous of her and this jealousy, writes Freud, shows itself in all of the layers described.
In his second paragraph on Paranoia, Freud writes that in an intensive study of two paranoiacs he has learned some new things. These may alter earlier dogmatic positions taken regarding the inapplicability of analytic investigation to this general type. His first case was a youngish man with a fuller developed paranoia of jealousy, the object of which was his impeccably faithful wife. When seen a long period of delusional possession lay behind him, but at this time he was subject to clearly defined attacks which lasted for several days and, curiously enough, regularly appeared on the day following intercourse which was stated to be satisfying to both. “The inference is justified that after every satiation of the heterosexual libido, the homosexual component, likewise stimulated, forced for itself an outlet in the attack of jealousy.”
The material upon which the jealousy fed itself consisted of the most minor forms of contact—it even extended to interpretations of her “unconscious” activities concerning the interpretations of which he was “always in the right.” It is well known that the usual persecutory paranoiacs show this mechanism in a striking manner. Their “delusions' of reference” take up the smallest details of what other people are doing with reference to their feelings about them. The jealous husband patient perceives his wife's unfaithfulness instead of his own; by becoming conscious of hers and magnifying it enormously he succeeds in keeping unconscious his own. The enmity which the persecuted paranoiac sees in others is the reflection of his own hostile impulses against them. Here for the paranoiac as for the jealous patient the defense in both instances is against the homosexual component. Freud found this patient's dreammaterial to contain some interesting features, especially those occurring within the period influenced by the delusional material. In these the delusional material had vanished. Homosexual tendencies slightly disguised were characteristic. This trend existed in rather primitive form as the patient had made no friendships and developed no social interests. His delusion might reasonably be regarded as his first bit of previously
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neglected homosexual adjustment. An inferior father and an early homosexual trauma had forced this component into repression and prevented its sublimation. He was mother's favorite and often had so-called normal jealousy situations with reference to her. Obsessive ideas relative to his wife's virginity were other indications of the motherfixation. At first he was free from jealousy. He then had an affair of some duration which was terminated under suspicion when the projected jealousy ideas came through thus assuaging his own self-reproach. Homosexual impulses, directed towards the wife's father, then completed the development of the jealousyparanoia.
A second case whose diagnosis only appeared on analysis showed a striking fatherambivalence. Rebellious on the one hand and an abject son, with such an attachment to his father's memory that he could not get any joy from women. With men he was suspicious but a keen intellect rationalized this attitude. From this patient Freud states he learned that classical ideas of persecution may be present without finding belief or acceptance. They flashed up but were scoffed at or deemed unimportant. This may occur, he writes, in many cases of paranoia. The apparently new delusional outcroppings may have existed in this form before the outbreak of the disease as ordinarily interpreted. The quantum of cathexis now becomes important. (The condenser capacity of the symbol has been the reviewer's phrase to express this same situation. See the Symbol as an Energy Condensor, J!. N. & M. D., Dec. 1919.) This overinvestment of the interpretation of the unconsciousbehavior of others, in the first case, also illustrates the importance of this quantitative factor, which has been known for some time in the hysterical reaction, for instance, where the sick phantasies can be tolerated alongside of the normal life and only when the change in libido direction overloads them—hypercathexis—does the conflict arise which causes the symptom formation.
These two patients showed interesting contrasts in the dreammaterial. The first showed no delusion formations, the second contained a number of persecutory features, forerunners of the substitutive developments of the delusional ideas. The pursuer, a bull or other wild animal, was readily recognizable as the father. One dream Freud characterizes as a characteristic paranoiac transferencedream. In it Freud was shaving in front of the patient. From the scent of the soap he realized that Freud was using the same soap as his father had used. This procedure was interpreted, by the patient, as an effort to induce in him a fathertransference on to Freud.
The author now takes up an interesting point with reference to dream formation. Such is distinguished from waking thought in that for their content they can draw from material which cannot emerge into waking thought. They are, further, a form of thinking, a transformation of pre-conscious thought material by the dream work and the conditions. The
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conscious terminology of the neurosis is not applicable to repressed material. When the first patient was delusional, his dreams were “normal.” Those of the other were paranoiac in content while he treated his delusional ideas with contempt.
Even though a somatic factor may be granted for a homosexual the psychical structure is none the less capable of analysis. The usual process is that the young man, some years after puberty, turns from a previously marked motherfixation, identifies himself with his mother and looks about for love objects in which he can rediscover himself, and whom he wishes to love as his mother loved him. One of the conditions of this early stage is that the object must be of the same age as he himself was when the change took place. The various steps in the formation are of interest. The first motherfixation depreciates other women. This gives rise to the identification and permits being true to his first love. This then permits the preference towards the narcissistic self and the greater ease in obtaining erotic satisfactions than from the opposite sex. Behind this there lies a highly dynamic factor: i.e., “the high value set upon the male organ and the inability to tolerate its absence in a love object.” Depreciation, aversion, even horror of the woman are usually derived from the early discovery that women lack a penis. Correlated with this excessive regard or fear for the father may be another determiner for the homosexuality. The last two are bound together in the castration complex. Thus in the psychical etiology of homosexuality these are found, motherattachment, narcissism and the castration fear (not specific) which when added to by some homosexual seduction bring about the premature fixation and the passive rôle already possibly aided by the inferior gonadal system. The incompleteness of this formula Freud says has always been felt. A new determiner is presented—whether it relates to the extreme, manifest and exclusive types of homosexuality is not yet apparent. Intense brother (and sister), chiefly older brother, rivalries are frequently observed in analytic study. The mothercomplex factor is evident. Later these rivals become the first homosexual objects. The contrast with the paranoiac mechanism in which the early loved object becomes the later hated persecutor here shows the early rival as the later love object. It also represents an exaggeration of the process, which Freud has developed in his “Massenpsychologie,” as leading to the birth of the social instinct in the individual. Jealous and hostile feelings cannot achieve gratification, personal affectionate and social identification-feelings arise as reaction-formations against the repressed aggressive impulses. This new mechanism in the homosexual object-choice, its origin in rivalry which has been overcome and in aggressive impulses which have become repressed, is often combined with the typical condition known to us.
2. Alexander, F. Castration Complex in Character Formation.—In analytic therapy it is well known that new transitory symptoms often
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arise. These, like laboratory experiments, offer favorable opportunity to gain light upon the dynamics of symptom formation in general. Ferenczi referred these new symptoms to resistances to uncovering repressed material which the analytic therapy was threatening to uncover and which being driven from old combinations sought like a sort of “puss in the corner” to get to another state of equilibrium. The analysis of the “neurotic character” individual offers many chances for the study of this new material formation. These impulsive, compulsive, temperamental: flighty people, who, while not tagable with a diagnosis, make all kinds of blunders in living. Their life, so to speak, is their neurosis. In the neurotic person the symptoms are more of a Sinbad's load which in the carrying preserves the personality from the harmful trends which freedom from repression of the unconsciousmaterial would entail. The neurotic and psychotic symptoms have teleological value. Even the paranoiac system corresponds to a healing with disablement. [See Jelliffe in “A Study of the Origin, Development and Transformation of the Paranoia Concept,” Medical Record, April 15, 1913.]
In many neuroses such a stable system is not reached, phobias, obsessions augment and life may become intolerable. The neurotic character, however, stopping short of symptom formation, finds outlets in a vast variety of unreasonable activities, only partly influenced by consciousness and using no one of the neurotic mechanisms per se. The libido gets over even if many others are bowled over—thus the illness may be avoided. A certain section, certain impulse ridden criminal types—within as well as without the law—suffer from a deficiency of these defense reactions. Others, quite as definitely are driven to injure themselves perpetually and thus avoid the neurosisbecause through the senseless self-in juries they replace the symbolic overcompensations (self-punishments) of the obsessional by real ones, and in this way keep their oversensitive consciences clear. If they cannot get what they are after they develop a neurosis. Analytic experience shows this: The usual fate of this type is suicide. The unconscious remains victorious in spite of all that one can do. Every neurotic character contains within it the germ of a particular type of neurosis which must break out if any deprivation of the satisfaction in reality of the neurotic tendency ensues. (How many steady citizens having accumulated their pile after a long life of compulsive activities, develop definite neuroses when they retire.) The curtailment may result from external or from internal events. The latter mode not infrequently is seen in an analytic treatment. The previously enjoyed experiences are renounced when the meaning becomes conscious; now the transitory symptom (latent neurosis) arises. Its severity will depend on the latent factors and viewed in the light of the transference—resistance situation—“a new revised edition of an old disease” —if represents a last (or renewed) attempt of the repressed tendencies to find a discharge in the form of action. Dynamically considered, every “transitory symptom” is
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merely an expression of the fact that a neuroticattachment has been loosened so quickly that it is not possible for the cathexis which has been set free to work itself out in transference manifestations; that is, by resolving the symptoms one takes from the patient more satisfaction than can at the moment be made good to him in the transference or still less in reality. In treating abnormal characters we destroy, not symptoms, but real or almost real satisfactions: the tension caused by the difference between the real satisfaction and the transferencesatisfaction is too great, and so there arise transitory symptoms, or even a transitory neurosis, as by-products or also as transition stages.
Alexander very ingeniously illustrates these principles in analytic work and first calls attention to character formation trends and specially what influence the castration complex has upon character formation. Character traits he first describes as certain stereotyped attitudes in life. Neurotic characters are those who show such throughout their lives, at the most decisive moments, and most important turning points. Such stereotypies may be regarded in the light of efforts at solving a conflict which has arisen on the basis of some insuperable experience. The analytic readjustment conies about in the realigning of this old experience which is being compulsively reiterated in some symbolic form.
In an analysis presented Alexander cleverly outlines transitory replacement of such impulse ridden conduct by conversion (hysterical) and paranoid symptoms. Some time was taken in dispersing the amnesia covering the first six or seven years of the patient's life. When this was done the chief outlines of the impulse-ridden system which gave the coloring to his entire character appeared. Marital difficulty was the primary reason for consultation. He began to feel that his wife had married him solely for money. He treated her, unconsciously, as a prostitute—loaded her with presents, and only demanded intercourse, which she, sexually frigid, only granted through the satisfaction of her anal-erotic regression—i.e., hats, and clothes, and other signs of wealthy exhibitionism. This tendency to debase the female object—that gives a woman money—not love, making a prostitute of her, thus splitting the mother Imago—in this case its superior attitude, the wife being a superior person, socially and intellectually—plays a rôle in his fixation upon her, for it prevented hislibido to regress to the same anal erotic level as that of the wife's—and it was forced to expression through social contacts—business—and thus took on the features of a disguised (sublimated) homosexuality. The fate of this split-off remnant of the homosexually operating libido came first into the analytic field. His marital difficulties began to be pronounced as the economic upheaval of the Great War impinged upon his social activities. His fortune, which had been considerable, dwindled, and he was reduced to inactivity. The dammed up libido now sought new outlets. His anal erotic component was bearing its full load and new directions were imperative; real affection was apparently blocked. Now
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either the “latent neurosis” always just under cover in the “normal” life of a busy man, must come through into a manifest neurosis, or a new love relationship at genital levels must take the pressure from the lower level cravings. This latter alternative had been tried but he could not leave his wife—the reason has been already glimpsed in the Œdipus situation—since his motherfixation prevented him from finding a sublimation at genital levels, no matter where he turned to find love. Analysis must enlarge the love possibilities of the individuals if they are to find satisfactory libido expressions.
The patient was forty at this time and it was hard to begin all over, even if it had not been seen how all his life he had hindered healthy sublimation, injured himself, and rendered much of his energy sterile. These hampering self-injuries show up as a form of stereotyped behavioristic impulse-ridden pattern which the author aptly designates as passive kleptomania. His friendships were always instinctively chosen to satisfy this character trait pattern. Friendship and business were closely interwoven and these friends always betrayed him. He more than less insisted on being robbed. Analysis unrolled a long list of such transactions. He called it “fate” and never learned anything from his experiences. His own meticulous overconscientiousness and honorableness—to which in large part his monetary success had been due—was markedly over-compensatory. The early amnesic material showed it to be conditioned as a castration wish in which money-feces-penis was the unconscious formula. His whole career was one of intense devotion (father—son) to the interests of his employers. He slaved for their interests and raised himself to fortune and position, but every new money conquest gave rise to a guilty sensation, which was relieved—unconsciously—by harder work and by losing a part of the money through the passive kleptomanic events. As an anal-erotic overcompensation, this aspect is well documented in analysis, but here the author would connote it more closely with the Œdipus complex and show the interior mechanistic working out of a castration complex. His “parasites” (transference situation) were not haphazardly chosen. They always could be recognized as superior father-substitutes.
Freud has shown that fecal loss may be regarded as an early narcissistic wound—hence may serve as a prototype of castration. The oral nipple loss (Stärcke), well recognized, here has a homolog in primal anal castration (Freud). Early, through nursery training, this fecal loss is compensated for through love tokens. Then the mother situation in the Œdipus complex—incest barrier—introduces, as conscience, an inhibitory factor in the ego system. Early onanistic phantasies emphasize this inhibition and the resultant ego-ideal is introjected to the father, and the castration fear is expected at his hands. Later developments of the father, are the leader and finally the community. The energy of
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the libido seeking the regressive mother is deflected toward the ego ideal, identified with father and later community ideals build up later ego structures. These considerations the author states enable one to trace the narcissistically valuable substance, money, as replacing the penis in the castration wish. Thus the patient gave up his money to the superior objects and later with the communistic upheaval he neglected to protect his own fortune as he had done for the fortunes of many of his friends. Even the few personal valuables he saved were stolen from him by a friend. A striking overcompensation was also present in his special acuity in detecting frauds carried out against his employers. Thus when but twenty years old he ferretted out an embezzlement of a fellow employee. When a bribe was offered to compound the felony he denounced the rascal, but following this he had a gastric neurosis for a year. He could not eat solid food. Analytic revival was followed by a diarrhea. Globus also recurred as it had occurred at the time. The analysis of these “transitory symptoms” picked up still earlier material, namely, schoolboy (nine to ten) stealing activities—pencils, pens, money. He particularly craved a school bag of one of two clever boy mates, both of whom he envied, and who were the only ones from whom he stole.
The author here disgresses a bit and points to certain differences in some male and some female kleptomanic mechanisms. These latter steal without objecttransference. The patient stole out of envy of the clever boys—the bigger penis; the women envy the organ itself. Other determiners are undoubtedly present.
To revert to the patient, earlier stealing episodes were uncovered. At five he stole money from his father's pockets. His later unsuccessful repression of the asocial impulse became overcompensatory projection of the other fellow's dishonesty. He resisted with great conflict the many opportunities for bribery, and despatched his inner enemy by his struggles with dishonest customers. Thus his ego-ideal identified himself with the head of the firm—father—the to be regressed component—crooked-customers. Thus through projection and identification both trends were fairly well dealt with. This worked until the embezzlement situation. He delivered the thief, but the entire gastrointestinal canal carried the converted libido. Solid food was an oral representation of the castration wishes, diarrhea prevented a hard (penis) stool. The globus—swallowing the penis. All of these symptoms, as said, recurred in the analysis. When he was about to realize the mechanism of his financial castration, for he then found that he even then was following the stereotyped pattern and his entire finances were again in jeopardy. He now suddenly became suspicious, demanded balance sheets. Thus the paranoid state followed on the analytic dispersal of the hypochondriacal syndrome which had arisen in the analysis out of the character trait insight. Further analysis now of the “new edition” revealed determiners for this paranoid projection. When six, his father died.
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He revived the memory of great feeling as he kissed him and threw himself sobbing on the dead body, crying “I will do everything I can to make up for all that I have done against you.” The abreaction even was accompanied by an hallucinatory revival of his father's face. The old pattern now seems to resolve itself into the compulsion to pay back the pennies he had taken from his father's vest to any and every father-substitute who crossed his path in life. His characterregression became worse—he almost became a paranoiac—made scenes, suspected being on the Bolshevist's black list, a selected victim of a world revolution. He had become aware of the passive change from the active aggression, but as this still remained unanalyzed the anxiety which had been in equilibrium because “he had paid to be able to keep his penis,” having lost this, now flowed into the persecutory channel. Further analysis (see page 30 for very interesting details) with much disturbance got at the early constellation of the castration fear. The paranoid ideas gave way, there was no return of the conversionsymptoms; his entire character, manner, expression, handwriting, gait, all modified, he started a new business and was successful. The analysis of the dreams in the final stage are too detailed to permit abstraction. The libidodevelopment of this case he sums up as follows: (1) The primary, sadistic, active, heterosexual. (Primal crime of incest and castration wishes.) (2) Following this a defense against these asocial impulses by transformation of them into masochistic-passive homosexual, and finally into (3) a defense by displacement and sublimation against the passive homosexual outlet for the libido. The author calls attention to certain analogies here and Freud's conception of the stages of civilization and religious evolutions.
The author now would consider the factors antecedent to the castration wish directed against the father (since biologically the incest wish must anticipate this latter). These he equates somewhat as follows (the evidence offered is too detailed to reproduce): The unconsciouscastration, birth, incest with, return to the womb. Certain suffocating tensions are correlated with “repetitions of the sensations during the act of birth.” The author finally concludes: “I will sum up the essential points of this paper. In the castration complex two self-injuring tendencies met in one stream: on the one hand, the talion punishment for active castration wishes, out of the fatherconflict; on the other hand, the punishment for incest wishes. Further, in this second source the expectation of castration is only one manifestation of an expectation of a general narcissistic wound. It is the deposit of an ontogenetic experience—that every pleasure has its outcome in loss, in pain.
“The patient's behavior in his marriage now becomes completely comprehensible. His impulsion to give, to pay for every act of intercourse, is a need to give out a substance of narcissistic value and thus
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a sublimated anal representation of his castration wish, by which he allays his sense of guilt in regard to coitus. In spite of depreciating her by payment, the wife remains to him the superior being—the mother. He thus behaves exactly as in his youth when he did penance for his incest-phantasies by his blunders, whose double meaning was at once castration and incest, a guilty impulsion to death by water and by suffocation; to birth and the return into the womb.
The castration wish stood as the central point of his whole character-formation and that is why he was such an unusually favorable object in which to study this complex. The analytic solution of it led not merely to a complete change in his social character-traits, but also to a change in his sexual character. This change, too, did not take place without disturbances. The dissolution of the sense of guilt led at first to an unbridled longing for a mother instead of a wife, only later on to be gradually brought into adjustment with reality.
3. Sachs, H. The Tempest—This is largely an historical study relative to the date of the publication of this play, its origins, its purposes, and finally a very penetrating inquiry into its artistic sublimation values relative to Shakespeare's fixations upon his younger daughter Judith and the delivery of her libido over to her husband, shortly after which Shakespeare died. It is a most scholarly and fascinating presentation which should be read in the original as no abstract could do it justice.
4. Freud, Anna. Relation of Beating-Phantasies to a Day-Dream.—Freud's well known paper on a widely found phantasy—A Child Is Being Beaten—is here taken as a foundation for further investigation and amplification. The following paragraph is chosen as a starting point. “In two of my four female cases an artistic superstructure of day dreams, which was of great significance for the life of the person concerned, had grown up over the masochistic phantasy of beating. The function of this superstructure was to make possible the feeling of gratified excitement, even though the onanistic act was abstained from.” From a variety of day dreams the present authoress selects one which illustrates this paragraph. This occurred in a fifteen year old girl whose abundant phantasy life had not brought her into conflict with reality. Her beatingphantasy began about five to six. Its early content was—“A boy is being beaten by a grown-up person” —later, “Many boys are being beaten by many grown-up persons.” The objects and the misdeeds were indeterminate. The phantasy was accompanied by excitement and usually terminated in Onanism. The usual sense of guilt found present here also, as Freud has shown, indicates an earlier unconscious form of the phantasy, of which the new statement is a modified substitute. In the unconscious form the “beater” is the father, the beaten the subject herself. Even this form is not primary, the beater is the same, the
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father, but the beaten one, is someone else, a brother or sister, but a rival for the father's affection. Thus the phantasy gave to the individual all of the father and turned on the rival his wrath. When the later repression takes place, guilt arises, and the object of the punishment is the child herself. The pregenital anal, sadistic phase, makes the beating a symbol of being loved. The third phase has the libidinous excitement, the sense of guilt and the latent content, “My father loves only me.” In the present case the sense of guilt was chiefly directed against the masturbatory activity. For years the little girl sought to separate the two components and tried to overcome the “habit.” Now began a phase of elaboration of the phantasy to prolong the permitted aspects and to delay the tabooed climax. Institutions, schools, reformatories, complicated rules, were elaborated. The beaters were usually teachers. Much embroidery of the situations was constructed. With the gradual growth of increasing moral standards the whole phantasy was subjected to greater suppression. Self-reproach, pangs of conscience and a short period of depression followed each “climax,” which had begun to be preceded by and followed by a sensation of “pain.” At about the age of eight to ten a new type of phantasy arose—“nice stories” she called them. They contained pleasurable elements and kind considerate behavior. The figures now were determinate—they were no longer concealed as in the previous “bad” phantasies. These new phantasies became most complex and elaborate. The climax of each situation was accompanied by a strong feeling of pleasure, but there was no auto-erotic act and no sense of guilt. We now had an artistic superstructure which had grown up over the masochistic phantasies of beating. The patient had no idea of the relationship and separated the “nice” from the “ugly” phantasies very definitely. Whereas all individualities were hidden in the “ugly” phantasies, the analysis of the people of the “nice” phantasies brought out a number of significant details. These would discuss, she narrated these “continuous” stories with different plots, different figures, with gusto. One of these was the prototype. This plot apparently was borrowed along about fourteen from a medieval romance found in a boy's story book. She took up the thread, elaborated it and dealt with it as if it were her own. It was later found impossible to dismember the original from her own creation, which in the main was: A medieval knight has for years been at feud with a number of nobles who have leagued together against him. In the course of a battle a noble youth of fifteen (the then age of the patient) is captured by the knight's henchmen. He is taken to the knight's castle and there kept prisoner some time, until at last he regains his freedom. This is used as an outer framework for her day dream, which may be altered at will in its different integers. Two figures remain fairly constant. The noble youth and the harsh and brutal knight. The two characters are worked out in
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great detail. The prisoner's fear and fortitude, while undergoing all sorts of violent threats are felt with great excitement, and at the climax when the anger and rage of the torturer are changed into kindness and pity this excitement resolves itself into a feeling of pleasure. These phantasies might occupy a few days or a few weeks in their coming to the denouement. This knight and prisoner day dream on close inspection was a very monotonous type of affair. Strong and weak: misdeed of the weak which puts him at the mercy of the other—the latter's menaces, apprehension—with much prolonged elaboration and final solution by pardon and harmony. This is all there was in all the many elaborate situations in her nice stories and their relation to the beating stories is quite obvious. The solution was altered, reconciliation took the place of beating, otherwise they remained much the same in principle as closer study revealed. Occasionally the two types of stories would be intermingled, the eruption of the beating scene serves as a vehicle to lead up to the onanism which occasionally broke through. The function of the “nice” story as a sublimation of its predecessor is made quite clear.
In a third section the evolution of a continued story is traced. The patient finally wrote down a version of the day dream in which the previous repetition of the single events was abandoned to a longer and more elaborate recital of the event, the climax being achieved gradually. Writing the story was held to be a defense to the overindulgence of the day dream which is a matter of fact did actually fade away. But this is not quite explanatory and the writer concludes that the writer gradually acquired the point of view of the reader—she began to renounce her private pleasure in favor of the impression she could create in others, and she turned from an autistic to a social activity, and thus found her way back from the life of imagination to life in reality.
5. Communications: Oberndorf, C. P. This short paper deals with a compulsive alcoholic and psychically impotent patient who instead of a small phallus had an enormous one. Although he had a superior organ he nevertheless developed a sense of deprivation and of guilt. His alcoholism was episodic, connected with some depression, loneliness and inability to have intercourse. Oberndorf first shows some insufficiencies of the Alderian concept in view of his case. Its further analysis shows up the more frequent mechanisms known to psychoanalysis done in a very clear and intelligable manner.
Flügel, J. C., describes how an affective situation connected primarily with bicycle riding gave rise to inhibitions which prevented the patient from solving a problem in mechanics which contained some of the principles of bicycle wheels and gears. The analysis shows (1) that intellectual “tests” may be considerably disturbed by emotional factors,
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(2) such may depend upon very small differences in the test, (3) the emotional factors are not necessarily of a superficial nature, but (4) may be related to deep tendencies only elicitable by analysis.
Hitschmann, E. The author calls attention to urethral eroticism as playing an important rôle in obsessional neuroses. The urethral-erotic character has yet to be outlined.
Jones, E., calls attention to an explicit statement of Erasmus Darwin which antedates the much derided observation of Freud concerning fear of death and the distress of the infant in the act of birth.
Bryan, D. An interesting slip of the tongue: “I have always been afraid that I might have a cancer or a duodenal ulster,” made by an impotent Irish doctor, which on analysis, showed that Ulster stood for the constellation of his Œdipus situation and of his homosexual repression as well. Fear resentment to the father—Ulster—duodenal ulcer (ulster) which eats into Ireland (the mother) i.e., sexual intercourse. The homosexual component is that the father—Ulster—duodenal ulcer (ulster) enters into the patient's bowels (anal coitus).
Stern, A., reports an interesting gathering up of material in an analytic hour which was waiting for such a synthesis.
Spielrein, A. The auto as a symbol of male power, a short note and dream and vision of falling stars, an analysis of two dreams.
Seyler, C. A., picks out two slips of the tongue occurring in the Icelandic Sagas.
6. Abstracts and Book Reviews and Reports of Societies, including International Society.
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Jelliffe, S.E. (1925). The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. Psychoanal. Rev., 12(1):108-120