2. Contributions to the Psychology of the Love Life. Prof. Dr. Sigmond Freud.
3. Multiple Meanings in Dreams During Awakening and Their Occurrence in Mythological Thinking. Dr. Otto Rank.
4. Psychological Analysis of a Case of Paranoia. Sch. Grebelskaja.
5. Spermatozoa Dreams. Herbert Silberer.
6. Manifestations and Symbols of the Unconscious. Dr. C. G. Jung.
7. Destruction as the Cause of Being. Dr. Sabina Spielrein.
8. Analytical Observations on the Phantasies of a Schizophrenic. Dr. Jan Nelken.
9. A Few Cases of CompulsionNeurosis. Dr. Ernest Jones.
10. Regarding Symbol Formation. Herbert Silberer.
11. An Intellectual Component of the Father Complex. Dr. E. Bleuler.
12. Forel's Position Towards Psycho-Analysis. Prof. E. Bleuler.
13. Concerning the Function of the Dream. Dr. A. Maeder.
14. The Problem of Spermatozoa Dreams. Herbert Silberer.
15. A Criticism. Gaston Rosenstein.
16. A Call to Principles. Herbert Silberer.
Autistic Thinking. One of the most significant symptoms in schizophrenia is an active withdrawing of the patient from the external world into his inner life. Bleuler has termed this symptom “autism.” He finds its mechanism used in dreams, the day-dreams of hysterical and normal being, in mythology, superstition, and similar spheres where thoughts turn away from reality.
Autistic illusions appear at first to be nonsensical and illogical. Closer examination, however, reveals them as understandable manifestations of an underlying complex; the fulfillment of a repressed wish. This mechanism removes all obstacles to the realization of a wish and impossibility becomes reality.
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Affectivity plays a predominating rôle in directing the course of autisticthinking. No sharp distinction can be made between autistic and ordinary thinking, since in the latter, thoughts tend to run in autistic, i.e., affective channels. Man is prone to believe that which he wishes to be true.
Autisticthinking on the whole is a search for pleasure and a means of avoiding pain and is governed by two principles:
1. Every affect attempts to continue itself; lends exaggerated logical force to those concepts which are in harmony and to check those in opposition to it.
2. We tend to acquire and retain pleasurable toned concepts. Painful concepts as well as painful experiences are repulsed by repression. Although every concept that is strongly charged with affect is ceteris pan-bus thus made more easily remembered and conscious, many painfully toned concepts because they are painful are repressed through the action of this second mechanism.
Freud has touched only upon the latter of these principles. Bleuler points out that affects work on the same principle as the pleasure mechanism. Depression can bring about phantastic feelings of worthlessness just as euphoria can result in delusions of grandeur.
Autisticthinking, responding to an inner stimulus, takes no account of reality, except as it offers material for its affects. Free from the demands of logic it allows all the conflicting tendencies and desires in a human being to come to consciousness. In this manner erotic desires and all other wishes impossible of fulfillment are brought to light and apparently fulfilled. In realistic thinking one idea represses all others or at least takes a dominant place; not so in autisticthinking. Here all impulses express themselves and in the one idea. This mechanism permits the dreampicture to represent several different complexes. Thus we have the process termed by Freud “overdetermination.”
A second consequence of ignoring reality is that logic operates only as it is needed to grant the unfulfilled wish. The same patient can look upon himself as man or woman, can be the son, husband, and father of his mother and, finally, identify himself with her. A woman can imagine herself the wife of her beloved and God at the same time. The symbolic meaning of such wishes is quite clear.
It is remarkable to note how far autisticthinking can depart from time relationships. The past, present and future are ruthlessly mingled, according to inner demands.
Thus far Blueler has considered autisticthinking as the result of affectivity. There are instances in which such mechanisms may result from purely intellectual motives. But he is not yet prepared to discuss that phase of the subject.
Autisticthinking may, in its relation to reality be divided into two
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classes and these grade into each other: first, well established concepts can be dissociated and reconstructed in arbitrary fashion; second, they can remain as they are. The autism of the normal person (when awake) is closely bound up with reality. Only in mythology is reality handled in the first fashion. On the other hand, dreams and the expressed autisms of schizophrenics are entirely independent of reality. Moreover, the conceptions which they present change from moment to moment. Therefore, dreams and schizophrenic illusions may become unintelligible while the autistic products of the normal mind are easily understood.
The fantasy conceptions resulting from organic mental diseases are of a special nature. They exhibit an excess of affectivity resulting in either wild delusions of grandeur or feelings of utter worthlessness. Usually in these cases the patient's concepts do not disintegrate. There is no splitting of his personality and he is not shut in. Such instances, therefore, seldom show true autism.
In idiocy autism does not play a great rôle. We have here the same variations as in normals but on a lower intellectual level.
Bleuler cannot go into a discussion of the conditions in epilepsy because of his limited experience with that disease.
Autistic thoughts range from fleeting episodes of a few seconds' duration to those in schizophrenics where they remain for a lifetime and completely withdraw the subject from reality. There are all grades between these two extremes. The boundaries between the real and the imaginary world often cannot be recognized. In the autism of normal behavior the subject can, however, distinguish between reality and the imaginary situation.
There are grades of autisticthinking in which a train of autistic thoughts, real concepts and associations, can appear in different numerical relation. Pure autisticthinking in which the concepts are built out of autisticthinking alone with no relation to the rules of logic does not exist.
Hysterical subjects can at times believe in their own fairy tales without being in a dream state but they are able to separate reality from autistic concepts. The true poet does the same thing. He expresses his affective needs more or less consciously in an art product. The play activity of children is often a mixture of autism in the same way as that of the artist. A few rags to a little girl are a child. The boy upon his hobby horse expresses his power and fighting instincts this way and both the child and poet attach more reality to their fancies than one is inclined to believe. The rags are really loved by the little girl and many poets and authors have wept when it became necessary to kill off their heroines. In the normal individual autism and autisticthinking are more clearly manifested in his dreams at night.
The reality which man can ascribe to mythology is remarkable. Even
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when thoughts from the standpoint of logic are complete nonsense, the mass of people believes them real. Many enlightened souls have even placed this relaity above that of the outer world when there was conflict between them.
Autistic withdrawing from reality is often an active process: in sleep, where it is most apparent, it is effected through the sleep mechanism itself; while in schizophrenia and hysteria it is part of the autistic mechanism. The schizophrenic not only wishes to think that which he desires but he deliberately turns away from reality which angers or irritates him.
Autisticthinking is in many respects the opposite of real thinking: Realistic thinking represents reality. Autisticthinking represents that which affectively calls up, usually something pleasurable. Realistic thinking has for its object a true knowledge of the environment. Autism seeks to bring forth emotionally toned conceptions, usually pleasurable ones and banishes those accompanied by an opposing affect. Realistic mechanisms regulate the relations to the environment. Autistic mechanisms create pleasure by bringing forth pleasurable conceptions and repressing painful impressions. The existing methods of fulfilling one's needs, therefore, are the autistic and realistic. The person who satisfies his desires by means of fantasy has little need or strength for real action. If he is entirely dominated by autisticthinking, he appears to the external world as apathetic or even stuporous. The opposition between these two mechanisms is apparent from the fact that the supremacy of one results in an inhibition of the other. If logical thought is for some reason weakened, then autism gains the upper hand relatively or absolutely. Such instances may be divided into four groups:
1. The child lacking the experience necessary to use logical forms of thought and the possibilities of the external world, falls an easy prey to autism if it possesses the ability for fantasy.
2. In such subjects where our knowledge or powers of logic are insufficient, or where affectivity determines belief, logic gives way to autisticthinking as for instance in religion, love, ultimate causes and our attitude toward life.
3. If for any reason emotions achieve a value that does not belong to them, logic relatively disappears. Such is the case in strong affects and in neurotic dispositions.
4. Whenever the associations between ideas are loosened as in normal dreams and in schizophrenia, they lose their significance.
The sex instinct bears a special relation to autism. There are masturbators, schizophrenics, and neurotics whose only satisfaction lies in physical and psychic autoerotism. All other instincts need the environment for their satisfaction. Hunger must in the long run have food; no dream meal can satisfy. This possibility of gratifying sex by
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autistic means for a long period of time taken together with the fact that the sex drive is the strongest impulse in civilized man is probably the explanation of the predominance of sexual complexes in the autisticthinking of pathological cases.
In certain respects these two thought processes, namely, autistic and realistic thinking, supplement each other: when reality does not fulfill our wishes then autism represents them as accomplished. Of necessity socially living man has had to construct an ethics with its concepts of justice and with its reward of virtue and its punishment of sin. But in nature, in fate, in everything that is not subject to our control we see nothing of this justice. The gap is filled by religion which punishes, rewards according to our ideas, but in the future where realistic thinking does not reach. Man's fear of death is also appeased by religious conceptions. Our desire for an understanding of the causes of phenomena is fulfilled through mythological explanations.
According to Freud, autisticthinking is so very closely allied to the unconscious that it is difficult to differentiate the two. Bleuler points out that autisticthinking may be conscious as well as unconscious. Autisticthinking, however is usually unconscious while realistic is usually conscious.
Autisticthinking does not always attain its end for sometimes it contains within itself contradictions. Many of our most emotionally toned concepts are ambivalent (i.e., accompanied at the same time by negative and positive feelings). That which we desire often has its unpleasant side. Certain wishes as for instance, the death wish of a wife towards a cruel husband can arouse strong negative feelings which upon being repressed can manifest themselves through fear and other symptoms of mental disease. The worst of these seem to be conflicts of convenience. The origin of these tortured consciences are often unknown to the patient since they were formed in the unconscious. Just as an injustice done by us in reality can produce remorse and self-reproach, just so can an imagined one which was fulfilled by autisticthinking and the imagined sins are so much worse since they are not accessible to logic. Reality, though ignored, can still make itself felt. Those painful impressions which autism seeks to banish from consciousness tend to reappear at another time in disguised form. Under biological conditions, the nature of the impediments must be transformed by autisticthinking but cannot be completely ignored. While on the one hand autism through the fulfillment of wishes brings expansive hallucinations, it leads on the other to delusions of persecution when external reality as a disturber of pleasure is transformed by autisticthinking.
Sometimes autisticthinking, in fulfilling a wish, creates a symptomcomplex which we call a mental disease. The illness thereupon becomes a means of escaping from reality.
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The various conflicts that result in autism are the foundations out of which the delusion of persecution grows. This delusion has very many roots, and we are not in a position to make general rules concerning its various origins or the particular predisposing factors. Delusions of persecution arise when a real or autistic striving meets with opposition. Bleuler gives many examples of this.
The thoroughly autistic individual cannot always fully satisfy his needs for he may lack the ability to create pleasurable reactions. Furthermore, bodily needs at best can only be temporarily satisfied through hallucinatory means. And finally, since in real life human beings are never thoroughly satisfied with that which they have sought to attain, we cannot expect that they will achieve complete satisfaction in fantasy. These facts make it clear why schizophrenics, in spite of extended hallucinatory fulfillments of their wishes, so often become victims to delusions of persecution in which the beloved one is usually the persecutor.
Even in the daily life of normal beings autisticthinking is a power whose importance is difficult to overestimate. Although our day dreams may seem to be innocent play of the mind, they are not without their influence upon our actions. In the form of illusions they make life more beautiful and bearable even though at the same time more dangerous.
All true art has its roots in autism. Religion is an autistic creation. Politics among the masses and often among the leaders is largely a matter of suggestive and autistic mechanisms. Theater-going is a means of seeking relief from one's troubles by fantasy.
Autisticthinking naturally does a good deal of damage to normal individuals. Bleuler cites the crusades and thirty years' war as evidences of this (and the abstractor has no doubt that if the article had been written after the great war, Bleuler would have included that among the manifestations of autisticthinking in the human race).
Since realistic thinking, the “fonction du reel” is more easily disturbed in sickness than is autisticthinking, the French psychologists, under the leadership of Janet consider the “fonction du reel” as the highest, most complicated of our mental processes. Freud takes an unequivocal stand and states that his pleasure-principle in evolution is the primary mechanism in the development of man. Bleuler holds the opposite view. He cannot agree with the Freudian theory that the sucking child fulfills his needs in hallucinatory fashion. He is of the opinion that the child and the imbecile, like ordinary humans, resort to autisticthinking only in matters beyond the limit of their comprehension. Moreover, autisticthinking must be secondary to the realistic, since memories of reality are necessary for it. Animal psychology shows that they possess only the “fonction du reel” with the exception of the most intelligent animals. This contradiction Bleuler solves by saying that the autistic function is
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not as primitive as the simplest forms of the “fonction du reel,” but in a certain sense it is more primitive than the highest forms of the latter as we find them developed in human beings. The lower animals possess only the “fonction du reel.” No mind can think in an entirely autistic manner. At a certain phase of development the autistic function appears and from that time on develops with the realistic.
In the phylogenetic development certain stages can be formulated although they have no definite boundaries:
1. The comprehension of a simple external situation and a behavior response to it, such as reaching for food, fleeing from an enemy, etc. Such actions are little more than reflexes, which can become differentiated and complicated. They may be accompanied by sensations of pleasure and pain, but affectivity does not play a special rôle here.
2. Memories are formed from these actions and used by later functions, but only in response to external stimuli in the exercise of realistic functions.
3. Later more complicated and more sharply defined conceptions are created, more independent of external influences.
4. Without any stimulus from the outer world but merely on the basis of previous experience, concepts are formed into logical functions, interpreting the unknown by the known, the future by the past. Thus there results coherent thought made up exclusively of memory pictures, bearing no relation to external sense stimuli and external needs.
The autistic function enters here for the first time. Pleasure-toned concepts can produce wishes and satisfactory fantastic fulfillment of them by the banishment of the unpleasant aspect of things and the substitute for them of one's own pleasurable inventions. Thus the fantasy function cannot be more primitive than the commencement of true thought and must develop parallel with this process. The more complicated and differentiated logical thought becomes, the greater its adaptability to reality and, in consequence, the possibility of freedom from the influence of emotionally toned engrammes of the past and of emotionally toned conceptions that concern the future is heightened. The great number of combinations of thought make possible unending combinations of fantasy, while the existence of countless emotionally toned memories of the past and equally affective conceptions concerning the future inspire fantasy. With their development the differences between these two methods of thinking become sharper. The result is two opposing processes which cause even greater conflicts.
An individual in whom these two extremes are not balanced, becomes either a dreamer who no longer reckons with reality or a person who lives only for the present and cannot conceive of the future.
In spite of this parallelism there are many reasons why realistic
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thinking appears the more developed and why a general disturbance of the psyche affects the real function so much more strongly.
Real thinking is not congenital, is not inherited, but develops through living. Such a function is infinitely more easily disturbed than those having their origin in the organism.
On the other hand, autistic mechanisms are born in us. Affects and impulses from the very beginning have the same influence on our thoughts as autisticthinking. They modify thinking in accordance with their own ends. Long before the end of his first year the child experiences complicated affective reactions. Without understanding words, he responds in kind to the expression of emotion in another. Lying in young children is an affective reaction. The child who denies a wrongdoing is following an instinct to act in such a way as to avoid painful consequences.
The inborn nature of the autistic form of thinking is manifest in symbolism. This symbolism is remarkably uniform from person to person, race to race, century to century, in dream and psychosis and mythology. A limited number of patterns are the material which form the structure of many hundred sagas. The same complexes seemingly give rise to multitudinous myths and even the form of their expression is the same; the myths in which the bird, ship or basket brings children into the world and by which the dead are transported to their mysterious common home; the wicked (step)mother, etc., reappear again and again with the same meaning. Symbols derived from long forgotten religions reappear in schizophrenic delusions. The uniformity of autisticthinking has long been observed in the psychopathology of insanity. In such cases affects determine the association of certain symbols with certain ideas.
Austic thinking implies certain knowledge, i.e., to dream that one is a prince one must be acquainted with facts concerning princes. A little knowledge aids in creating fantasy; too much leads to consideration of the improbable factors and therefore hinders fantasying.
How is it, asks Bleuler, that autisticthinking which appears to be a harmful mental aberration, is so powerful among normals in the waking state? We must remember that that which is pleasurable is on the whole advantageous to the individual; that which is painful, injurious. Therefore, the principle upon which the existence of animal nature and the organization of its psyche depends, cannot be suddenly suspended because danger enters in with the employment of a new principle. The higher organism must overcome this danger or be destroyed. Normal beings are enabled to check the growth of autism. To a certain extent autism is easily reckoned with; too great a degree of it is dangerous. The limit between moderation and excess is difficult to determine; while the deleterious forms of autism can never be entirely overcome. Even the most intelligent cultured person is not always able to distinguish between
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realistic and imaginative thinking. Many things which in former days were considered impossible have become reality. The temperate drinker looks upon the achievement of abstinence as Utopian; the abstainer considers the achievement of real moderation as Utopian.
Autism has a positive worth. Anticipated pleasure leads to preparation for an undertaking and summons the energy necessary for action. Animals possessing but rudimentary mental processes, exhibit little perseverance in the pursuit of an objective. Man, however, maps out his campaign before starting, an autistic process. There doubtless have always been natures, who, satisfied with the autisticconception of the thing to be done, have not gone further and executed the real action. Such personalities—be they artists or individuals who gainpleasure from the art of others—show the harmful effect of autism. For art is profitable when it arouses life energy; it is injurious when it takes the place of action and when the esthetic urges force one to reconstruct his environment in imaginative form.
Autism is furthermore useful in forming in an individual the habit of thinking. The child, when fantasying, calls forth all the necessary mental and emotional complexes. Of course, such processes become dangers if the subject becomes unable to distinguish illusion from reality.
Finally, a small amount of autism assists one in the accomplishment of a purpose by banishing the obstacles and hardships in the way of fulfillment and thus allows the directing of all of one's energy, undivided, toward the work in hand.
There is a certain kind of thinking which is independent of the rules of logic and is directed by affective needs (autisticthinking).
This process is most strongly manifest in dementia precox and in dreams, in mythology and superstition, in the day dreams of hysterical and normal beings, and in poetry.
Autisticthinking can use for its purpose thoroughly illogical material. Klang associations, chance associations of any ideas and conceptions may take the place of logical association. Incomplete conceptions, false identifications, condensations, displacements and symbols are given the value of reality and similar abnormal mental mechanisms make up part of the material used in austistic thinking. Normal material and normal thought processes are not, however, neglected but are used in addition.
Logical thought, corresponding to reality, is a mental reproduction of the relationships present in reality.
Autisticthinking is directed by impulses and by these impulses thinking is directed which lacks logic and reality. The affects at the basis of these impulses pave the way for associations in conformity with them and inhibit opposing associations.
We tend to banish not only pain that comes from without but also
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that which arises through mere recall. Therefore autisticthinking results in recalling only pleasurable thoughts and in the banishing of painful ones. One of the chief activities of autism is the representation of wishes as fulfilled.
A negative mood may produce negative autistic tendencies. This occurs in cases of melancholic depression and also results when autistic conceptions conflict with reality.
In melancholic depressions autism creates depressive illusions which differ from ordinary depressing thoughts only in that they tend to become irrational.
The painful feelings arising from the conflict between autistic trains of thought and reality lead to delusions of persecution.
Autisticthinking, like logical thought, may be conscious or unconscious. In dementia precox the finished products of autism enter consciousness in the form of hallucinations, primordial delusions, delusions of memory. The working out of these concepts has taken place in the unconscious.
There exists perhaps a manner of thinking which may be termed autistic, but which has to do rather with satisfying logical needs in illogical fashion. In such a case affective motives are secondary. Examples of this type are certain elements in mythology and symbolism.
Autisticthinking is not a primary form of thought. It can develop only after the immediate reaction to an actual external situation has given place to thought composed purely of past experience.
Ordinary thinking, the “fonction du reel,” is primary. No living creature endowed with a mind can dispense with it any more than he can exist without real action.
That weakening of logical thought paves the way for autism is understandable from the fact that logical thinking results from memory pictures acquired through education, whereas autistic thought follows inborn mechanisms. These mechanisms can utilize any material whatsoever.
The reason why autisticthinking plays so great a rôle and has not been lost through natural selection is that it is impossible to draw a line between realistic and autisticthinking. Moreover, pure autism is useful in developing a capacity for thinking, just as play develops bodily powers.
However, its phylogenetic significance is in many relations not yet clear, as for example, in its expansion into art.
Contributions to the Psychology of the Love Life.—If the psychoanalyst questions himself as to the ailment for which his help is most often sought, he must answer (leaving aside the protean manifestations of fear) psychic impotence. This strange disorder is found in men of strong libido, who in spite of normal organs and strong sexual desire, are unable to perform the sexual act. The patient gets his first insight
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into his condition when he makes the discovery that such impotence occurs only in relation to certain persons. He fails, however, to understand the reason for this.
There have been many psychoanalytic studies of this problem. The most common cause of such impotence is an unconscious incestuous attachment to mother and sister. Other contributing causes are painful results experienced in performing infantile sexual acts and all factors that diminish the flow of libido toward the opposite sex. The basis of the disturbance is, as in probably all neuroses, an arrested development of the libido. Two currents whose union assures thoroughly normal love relations have not met in such instances. These two currents may be termed the “tender” and the “sensual.”
The “tender” current is the older. It develops in earliest childhood and is founded on self-preservative interests and directed towards the child's family and attendants. From the beginning it contains sexual components, more or less apparent even in childhood, which psychoanalysis rediscovers in the analysis of neurotics. It determines the primary infantile choice of an object. Investigation teaches us that sexual impulses find their first object by depending upon the value placed on the object by the ego-instinct just as the earliest sexual satisfactions are experienced in connection with the essential bodily functions. The “tenderness” of parents and nurses, which usually shows erotic characteristics, does much to increase the erotic nature of the child's ego-instincts.
These tender attachments on the part of the child continue with an increasing erotism, which leads them away from their sexual objects. At the time of puberty the mighty “sensuous” current sets in, which no longer mistakes its objects. But in using the old tender attachments it directs a far stronger amount of libido towards the objects of the primitive infantile choice. However, an obstacle (incest barrier) in the way of fulfillment causes the libido to be directed toward objects other than those of its infantile choice through whom sexual satisfaction can be gained. But these new objects are chosen on the pattern of the infantile ones. In time they are regarded with the tenderness formerly directed towards those earlier objects. Man leaves his father and mother and follows his wife. “Tender” and “sensual” love are then united. The most intense grades of sensual love will be accompanied by the highest psychic evaluation, viz., the normal overvaluation of the sensual object on the part of the man.
There are two factors in this developmental process which determine whether or not love will attain its full development. The first is the measure of denied satisfaction that is experienced through this choice of a new object. The second is the amount of attraction which the infantile object exerts, and which is proportional to the erotic content
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of the attachment towards that object. If these two factors are strong enough, then the mechanism necessary for the creation of a neurosis is set up. The libido turns away from reality, is given over to the process of elaboration by fantasy (introversion). This strengthens the images of the first sexual objects and attaches the libido to these. The incest barrier in the way of fulfillment, however, forces these objects to remain in the unconscious. Masturbation, the outward manifestation of this situation, serves merely to strengthen it. It makes no difference if fulfillment is in fantasy or if the fantasies leading to satisfaction through masturbation replace the original sex object with a new one. Through this means of compensation the fantasies are capable of becoming conscious, but no progress is made in the real disposition of the libido.
Thus it may happen that the whole sensuality of a young person is bound up in the unconscious with incestuous objects. The result then is an absolute impotence which may be insured by an acquired weakening of the sexual organs.
Less intense conditions can produce the usual and so-called psychic impotence. To this end it is not necessary that the sensual impulses be entirely disguised beneath the tender ones. They must have remained strong and unchecked enough to find a partial outlet into reality. In such cases, however, sexual activity shows the lack of a strong psychic impulse. It is variable, easily disturbed, clumsy in execution and unsatisfying. Since in such a case the sexual impulses are concerned with evading the tender ones, the choice of an object is limited to such persons as bear no resemblance to forbidden incestuous objects. The prizing of an object leads, not to sensual desire but to erotically inactive tenderness. The love life of such persons is divided, to speak in terms of art, betweert heavenly and earthly (or animal) love. Where they love, they feel no desire; where they desire, they cannot love. They seek objects that they will have no need to love, in order to keep sensual desire away from the real objects of their love. Psychic impotence then occurs as part of the manifestations of a complex in the return of repressed material. Some feature of the object recalls the forbidden incestuous object.
The chief means of protection against such an occurrence lies in psychic debasement of the sensual object, while the overvaluation normally directed towards the sensual object is reserved for the incestuous object or its tender substitute. If the dpreciation of the sex object is fulfilled then sensuality has free rein. Another factor contributes to this end. Persons in whom the tender and the sensual currents are not properly fused have as a rule a rather crude sensual life, of times perverted, which can be fulfilled only by means of debased sensual objects.
The fantasies of the boy who in imagination regards his mother as a prostitute are now easily comprehended. His fantasy was an endeavor
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to bridge the gap between the two currents of his love-life by belittling his mother and so making her a possible object for his sensual desires.
Thus far Freud has considered psychic impotence from a medico-psychological standpoint. He has reduced it to a lack of unity between the tender and the sensual impulses in the love life. This arrested development is due, in turn, to the influences of strong infantile attachments and the subsequent renunciation of objects in reality.
But these facts do not explain why certain persons are subject to psychic impotence, others not. Since childhood attachments incest barriers and renunciation of infantile objects to give satisfaction in the period following puberty are present in nearly all civilized people, one might draw the conclusion that impotence is a common condition in cultured races, not the complaint of an occasional individual.
One might refute this conclusion, says Freud, by showing whethe or not one succumbs to a certain illness depending upon the quantitative factor in the causal conditions. Although he grants the correctness of this, Freud has no intention of combating the aforementioned conclusion. On the contrary, he asserts that psychic impotence is far more widespread than one would believe; that a certain degree of it characterizes the love life of the cultured races.
If one extends the term psychic impotence to include more than inability to perform coitus despite desire and normal genitals, one must include under it that class of men known as psychanesthetics. Such persons perform the sexual act without, however, deriving any satisfaction from it. Psychoanalytic investigations of such cases point to the same etiological factors as have been discovered in psychic impotence in its narrower sense, without finding an explanation for the symptomatic difference. An analogy can be traced between the anesthetic men and the countless numbers of frigid women.
If we do not seek for an understanding of the broadened meaning of the term psychic impotence but rather for its symptomatology then we cannot blind ourselves to the fact that the love life of men in our present day world of culture bears the stamp of psychic impotence. In but few educated men are the tender and the sensual currents thoroughly unified. In almost every instance a man is checked in his sensual activity by his respect for woman. He reaches his greatest degree of potency only in relation to an object held in disesteem. This condition is due to the fact that his sensual desires contain perverse components which cannot be carried out in relation to a woman whom he reveres. The tendency of men in high ranks of society to select a woman of the lower classes for mistress or even wife may be merely the result of his needs for a sensual object commanding little respect, through whom full satisfaction is possible.
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Paradoxical and unpleasant as it may sound, it must, however, be stated that he who would be really free and therefore happy in his love life, must have conquered his respect for woman and become reconciled to the idea ef incestuous relations with mother or sister. Whoever examines himself frankly, will doubtless find that he regards the sexual act as something debasing, something more than physically unclean. The origin of this conception is to be sought in early youth when sensual desire strongly developed, was prevented from fulfilling its end through strange objects as well as through incestuous ones.
In our civilized world women are detrimentally influenced not only by their bringing up but also by the attitude of men. It is detrimental to them if either man's advances lack their full degree of potency, or whether the overvaluation which marks the first stages of falling in love is replaced by an attitude of contempt after actual possession. The need for a debasement of the sensual object is not very apparent in women. Long abstinence from sexuality and the confinement of sensual thoughts to the realm of fantasy, has other significant results in women. The association of sexual desire with its inhibition is so strong as to render women frigid even when such action is permissible. It is this association persisting that causes many women after marriage to conduct themselves in normal fashion only when a forbidden element is present, i.e., in a secret love affair in which they are untrue to their husbands.
In Freud's opinion, woman's need of a forbidden element in her love life corresponds to man's need of debasement of the sensual object. Both are the results of the long postponement of sexual gratification rendered necessary by culture. Both are attempts to correct psychic impotence. The difference in behavior of the two sexes arises in part from the fact that the woman of refinement does not overstep the bounds of abstinence during the premarital period and so establishes an inward connection between that which is forbidden and sensuality. Man, on the contrary, generally breaks down the barriers of restraint by means of an inferior object and carries this condition into his later love life.
In view of the efforts that are being made to reform the sex life of man, Freud finds it necessary to remind his readers that psychoanalytic research is not in the service of any propagandist group. Psychoanalysis is interested only in facts and their relationship and is pleased when reformers use its results to substitute bad methods by better. But it cannot prophesy whether the new institutions can bring the necessity for greater sacrifices than the old.
The fact that the inhibitions of civilization on our love life bring about a debasement of our sex objects causes Freud to direct his attention toward the instinct next.
We have seen how the bridling of sex impulses may lead to their not being satisfied after marriage. But unrestrained sexual freedom from
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the very beginning leads to no better result. It is clear that desires lose their worth as soon as fulfillment becomes too easy a matter. The libido in order to reach great intensity requires obstacles in the way of fulfillment. Wherever natural obstacles to gratification were insufficient, men in all ages have created conventional barriers, in order to increase the joy in their love life. This is true of individuals as well as races. In ages where the fulfillment of love entailed no hardships, as during the decline of ancient civilization, love became worthless, life empty. In consequence a strong reaction took place which reestablished the affective worth of the libido. Thus the ascetic tendency of early Christianity furnished love with increased value.
The statement that satisfaction of an impulse robs it of its worth and vice versa does not hold true in the case of the drinker. Why then does this relation exist between the lover and his sensual object? We must consider the probability, strange as it may sound, that the very nature of the sex impulse is antagonistic to complete fulfillment. In the first place, as a result of the influence of the incest barrier the ultimate sex object is but a substitute for the original one, and therefore cannot be wholly satisfying.
In the second place psychoanalysis has shown that when the original object of a wish is lost it frequently is substituted by an indefinitely long series of “Ersatz-objecten,” none of which is ever completely satisfactory. This may account for the lack of loyalty that is so often to be observed in adult love life. We know that sensuality is made up of a large number of components, some of which have been repressed or changed. Such, for instance, are the coprophilic impulses, which have become incompatible with culture. A similar fate has befallen a great part of the sadistic impulses. Such developmental changes, however, effect only the upper layers, not the foundations of mental structure. Excrement has become too closely connected with sensuality to be dissociated; the position of the genitals—inter urinas, et faeces—is a significant, unchangeable factor. Just as the genitals have not undergone the esthetic development characteristic of the rest of the body, so likewise, has love retained its animalistic features.
We might perhaps have to reconcile ourselves to the thought that sexual satisfaction is incompatible with the demands of culture; that renunciation and suffering can not less be avoided than the danger that in the distant future the human race will disappear from this planet as the result of its civilization. This black prognosis depends it is true upon a single premise, i.e., that non satisfaction is necessarily inherent in the form that sensuality is forced to take under the pressure of cultural development. The nonattainment of full satisfaction, however, has given rise to the greatest cultural achievements, effected through ever increasing sublimation.
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Of what use would it be for human beings to use the forces residing in the sexual instinct for other purposes if these gave them the same degree of satisfaction that sexuality does. They would continue their sexuality and thus there would be no progress. Thus it seems that permanently conflicting demands of the two instincts, ego and sex, will evolve in us ever higher accomplishments but with an ever present danger that in the weaker among us at present takes the form of neuroses.
Freud concludes this remarkable paper as follows:
“Science desires neither to frighten nor to comfort. But I am ready to admit that conclusions of such a sweeping character as the above should be based upon a broader foundation. Possibly other developmental trends in humanity will correct the conclusions that are stated here.”
Multiple Meanings of Dreams During Awakening and Their Occurrence in Mythological Thinking.—This is another of Rank's brilliant papers on dreams and dreaminterpretation. This one deals with dreams that end in the awakening of the dreamer. Rank says they are peculiarly well fitted to give us an insight into the mechanisms of dream formation and functions. These dreams not only show the wish-fulfilling tendency but also the desire for comfort very clearly and a very transparent symbolism. This clearness in symbolism is due to the fact that the stimulus resulting in awakening has already had a symbolicsatisfaction in the dream. He points this out in a large number of dreams, especially dreams resulting in part from bowel, bladder and seminal vesical stimulation. The symbolism thus formed is then applied to dreams that do not lead to awakening.
Rank devotes considerable space to dreams aroused by urinary stimuli. Their symbolism is simple and stereotyped. He makes this symbolism understandable from a psychological point of view and shows its importance for the understanding of the mental life of the individual and of peoples. He also shows the far reaching points of resemblance between the symbolism of vesical dreams and the so-called birth dreams. The same symbol can be interpreted at two depths so to speak: infantile-vesicle and recent-sexual.
The symbols that in the infantile sense represent bladder dreams have in their recent meanings a sexual sense. All of this is well illustrated in the twenty-four dreams that he cites.
The symbolisms used in the dream life of the individual are the common property of humanity. They are present not only in the individual at all times, places and races but seem to be independent of speech. Unconscioussymbolism appears to have many points of similarity to music. Rank then draws on the most diverse sources to furnish evidence
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for his interpretations such as myths, fairy tales, the sagas of modern peoples and aborigines as well as faiths, customs and languages and even in wit. He also quotes the spontaneous remarks of children from one and a half to twelve years of age to show their association of urinating and rain. Then he quotes the sagas of the American Indian and the “edda.” Illustrations are then given from the productions of the insane and the perverse. The analogy between urine and rain is often found in myth, saga and folk lore. Rank then interprets the magic flight motive which appears in myths all over the world. This motive consists of a pursuit of an enemy who is obstructed by supernatural agencies and means that result in the final safety of the fleeing individual or race.
Myth, fairy tale, saga as well as tradition, custom, speech and wit furnish Rank with a wealth of material for his thesis. The flights, the floods and other myths that are universal are easily interpreted by Rank.
This paper, as all of Rank's work, deserves the closest study. It is based on exact observation and a wide knowledge of mythology.
Psychological Analysis of a Case of Paranoia.—Grebelskaja first relates the history of the case. This is then discussed and further illustrated from two viewpoints, the etiological and mechanistic. In the first she follows Freud and sees the condition as one resulting from the breaking through of a repressed homosexuality. The second leads her to bring into relief the mechanism of projection and of infantile regression.
The case is very fruitful of material that illustrates both hypotheses. Especially noteworthy is the material that shows the ambivalent attitude of the patient towards his father and the projection of these opposites on other individuals.
Spermatozoa Dreams.—On January 6, 1912, Dr. Stekel reported to the writer a dream which revealed a “father body fantasy”, i.e., the dreamer imagined himself back in his father's body. He beheld in his dream numerous small people, among them himself. Dr. Stekel suspected that the little people denoted spermatozoa in the semen. Analysis confirmed this suspicion.
On the following day a girl named Agatha reported to Silberer the following dream: She was standing on a field of half melted snow. A narrow, snakelike path of hard ice led to a strange land. On this path thin men standing erect in small, narrow boats, were whizzing over the ice as if on skis. Presently two soldiers came toward her. A second glance, however, revealed but one in a gray mantle. Agatha desired very much to take the road to the strange land, but for some reason was unable to do so. She then found herself in the train. She was holding in her hand a boat such as she had seen on the ice. At a certain point she was to send it after the other boats. At the given spot she
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sadly dispatched the empty boat out of the window. At that moment she noticed that it was not a boat but a trough. She hoped that she would soon reach the strange land. As the train rushed along, she awoke.
Silberer's interpretation is as follows: The thin figures gliding into an enticing “strange land” are spermatozoa. The melting snow represents the flow of semen. The fact that Agatha herself is among these creatures and on the point of entering the strange land points to a father body fantasy. The dreamer herself declared that her sorrow at the empty boat was caused by the fact that she was not in it.
Further investigations revealed the fact that the trough was similar to that in which children are placed for a bath. The dream denotes her disappointment at the inability to bear a child, for in reality, the girl is sterile, as the result of an abortion. The empty trough denotes, then, her uterus.
The hard, snakelike ice path symbolizes the penis in a state of erection. The rhythmic appearance “from time to time” of the men signifies the rhythmic motion in coitus.
The soldier in gray represents Death, which stood within a foot of the girl at the time of operation. Upon that occasion one of her ovaries was removed. Therefore, the sudden disappearance of one of the two soldiers.
The presence of death in the dream denotes the dreamer's wish to end this life and be recreated. The strange land to which she desired to go is her mother's body.
Her grief at discovering a trough (female genitals) instead of a boat (penis) reveals an earnest desire to be a man.
In explanation of the next dream cited, Silberer tells us that Agatha had planned to visit her parents in Frankfort in order to be present at the celebration of her brother's engagement. She subsequently abandoned the idea.
In this dream Agatha arrived at her parents' home. She entered a bare room which was separated from her parents' bedroom by portieres. In this room were her two youngest sisters. One of them greeted her affectionately, the other ran away. Then the curtains opened and her father in night dress, came forward and kissed her passionately. She freed herself from his embrace and ran into the street to search for her mother. On a street corner she saw her brother and his bride. She approached them and asked her brother for money, explaining that she had forgotten her purse. He reached in his pocket and produced a silver piece. As Agatha was about to take it, the silver turned into ivory, upon which thin figures were visible. At sight of them, Agatha ran away. She continued the search for her mother, but in vain.
The small thin figures again denote spermatozoa. The brother's reaching in his pocket reminded the dreamer of onanistic acts performed in
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childhood. In the dream she ran away from her brother just as she had run away from the man who had impregnated her.
Her father's passionate caresses had been agreeable to Agatha as a child. Later they had filled her with disgust. Therefore, the dream presented a hindrance to the infantile wish to take her mother's place. Instead it represented sexual activity through the medium of the money scene.
Four days later Agatha dreamed a continuation of the above mentioned dream. In it she found her mother. She was seated in the midst of a great number of women around a long wooden table. Agatha sat at her feet upon a footstool. The mother then proceeded to describe to her a swelling of the abdomen and a subsequent bloody wound which she had experienced.
This dream, like its predecessor, contains a conflict between the wish to be pregnant and its opposite. Here a compromise is effected in the abortion experienced by the mother (a substitute for Agatha herself). Agatha, seated at her mother's feet, is the aborted fetus. The bare room with its long table is reminiscent of death chambers that the girl had seen. The dream reveals her oft expressed wish that she had never been born. Her endeavor to identify herself with her mother connotes this thought: if she (a sterile woman) had been in her mother's place then she, the daughter, would never have been conceived.
Manifestations and Symbols of the Unconscious.—This is the second part of Dr. Jung's paper which was begun in the Jahrbuch, Vol. 3, Part 1. It is available in English as “The Psychology of the Unconscious.” translated by Dr. B. S. Hinkle.
Destruction as the Cause of Being.—The author's investigation of sexual problems has given rise to the question: Why should the mighty impulse of reproduction be accompanied by negative feelings such as fear or disgust, which must be overcome in order to achieve positive action? Many theories have been advanced. That of Jung most nearly accords with the writer's own results. Jung tells us that the libido has two sides: It is the strength that makes all things beautiful and, under certain circumstances, destroys all things. To become fruitful means to destroy one's self, for with the creation of the next generation the present generation has passed the height of its power. Thus our successors are our most dangerous enemies, for they seize the power out of our enfeebled hands. Our erotic fate is beset with unknown dangers. Those who would avoid it must stifle desire and, in so doing, commit a kind of suicide. We can, therefore, understand how death fantasies come to be associated with renunciation of erotic desire.
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Biology gives us instances in which simple organisms die as soon as they have produced a new generation. Human beings do not sacrifice themselves in this way, yet they lose a part of themselves which at that moment represents the value of the whole organism. Anxiety and disgust are then feelings which correspond to the destructive component of the sexual instincts.
Observation of the Psychology of Individuals establishes the paradox that psychically we do not live in the present, for an experience is affective only in so far as it arouses previous emotional states buried in the unconscious. Freud traces the love life of the adult to a desire to renew the pleasure feelings of childhood. He regards the struggle to attain pleasure and avoid pain as the basis of all psychic productions. Yet the fact that at times pain may give us pleasure has given rise to conceptions of a “complex antomy” (to quote Jung's formulation).
The deepest portion of our psyche knows no “I” but instead the consummation “we,” or else the “I” is regarded as an object subordinate to other similar objects. For example, a patient under narcotics for a skull operation called out to the surgeon who applied the instrument to his head, “Come in.” In many instances we find an objectification of the whole personality, as in the case of the patient who during an operation fancied that soldiers were enduring her suffering. In dreams it is often another personality who fulfills our wishes.
According to the author's conception, dementia precox represents a conflict between the “I” psyche and the race psyche, which would make the “I” an impersonal, type object. During the progress of the illness the “I” comes to be regarded as a detached, impersonal object. For this reason patients can laugh at their own sufferings.
The affectless concepts which whole races have created give us insight into the content of our wishes. The “I” psyche struggles against assimilation by the race psyche. As a result, buried portions of the ego reappear in new guises as, for instance, in works of art. But such transformation takes place at the expense of that portion of the ego which is involved.
When we put our thoughts into language we are changing something personal into a general form which others can understand. But the sharing of that portion of ourselves with others gives us joy. This desire to give of ourselves has its culmination in sexual relations.
Stekel has pointed out that in dreamsdeath denotes a desire for the fullest measure of life. It often represents a sadistic sexual act. Freud has taught us that to dream of lying in a coffin is to symbolize the fetus within the uterus. The fantasies of neurotic patients reveal similar symbolism. Every sexual symbol, in dreams, as in mythology, means the life and death bringing God. For example, the horse, a symbol of the
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sexual, is the life giving animal of the Sun-God; it is also the animal of death.
Neitzsche says “Man is something that must be overpowered in order that the superman may be created.” “And if all ladders fail you, you must learn to climb on your own head: how would you otherwise climb upwards?” In other words, man must learn to destroy himself in order to create a new and higher generation. Another example of this thought is to be found among patients who when they desire children, picture themselves turned into children.
Bleuler's ambivalence theory and Stekel's notion of bi-polarity tell us that every positive impulse is accompanied by a negative one. Thus the sexual instinct is accompanied by a deathinstinct. Under normal conditions the constructive element predominates, but in the case of neurotics the destructive component manifests itself in the patient's opposition to life and to his natural fate.
To sum up, man is possessed of two sets of tendencies: his egoinstincts and his race-instincts. The instinct of self-preservation is a positive one; the instinct of race-preservation which sacrifices the old in order to create the new, is ambivalent. With the arousing of the positive component the negative component is simultaneously stirred and vice versa.
Mythology teaches us that our unconscious thought processes correspond to the consciousprocesses of our ancestors. In the Bible we read of the Tree of Life, which could bring death as well as life. The cross on which Jesus was crucified is said to have been taken from this tree.
In Wagner death is often nothing more than the destructive component of the instinct of creation. His heroes and heroines are saviors who sacrifice themselves for their love.
The greatest sacrifice was that of Christ. His followers in taking the sacrament of the bread and wine figuratively repeat His sacrifice in order to be renewed.
An interesting example symbolizing the creation of human beings out of the earth is to be found in rabinnical writings. We read here of dwarfs who are planted in the earth, from which they draw their nourishment through the navel. Another writer has described them as plants with human forms. When the cord which binds them to the earth is cut, they cry aloud and die. These human plants represent the fetus in the mother's body. The cry at birth is a death cry, for the child upon being given life becomes destined also for death.
Certain Australian Negro tribes practise castration as a sacrificial ceremony. In other words, they kill the sexuality in them in order that they may not be destroyed in reality. In short, throughout the realm of mythology and religion we find symbolized the fact that without destruction there can be no creation.
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Analytical Observations on the Fantasies of a Schizophrenic.—As a result of the influence of the investigations of Freud and especially Jung, the writer undertook the thorough psychoanalysis of a schizophrenic patient. The analysis lasted for eight months. The patient's richest productivity occurred during the periods before and after the catatonic attacks. During the attacks the patient was usually strongly introverted and negativistic. Also during the longer intervals between individual catatonic attacks the patient withdrew into his paranoidal state and produced nothing new. The doctor, therefore, forebore to hasten the interpretation of the patient's fantasies and waited until the succeeding catatonic attack brought the interpretation with it.
From the history we learn that the patient at the time of treament was forty-five years old. His mother, shortly after marriage, had suffered from “nervenfieber,” which resulted in a lingering nervous condition. She threw herself into religious activities; became a devoted follower of a certain religious sect. One of her brothers died in an insane asylum. The patient's only sister had been married for eleven years.
The patient's mental development, up to the time of puberty, exhibited no abnormalities. He did well in his school work. At the age of about fourteen a change in his character developed. The patient, who up to this time had been rather friendly, became extraordinarily timid and avoided the company of people. At the same time he developed articular rheumatism, to cure which he became a vegetarian. In spite of his earnest efforts, learning became difficult for him. He failed his entrance examinations to the teachers' training school twice before he succeeded in passing.
In the training school he was known as a model scholar, quiet, industrious, pedantic, possessing great powers of self-mastery. Upon the completion of his course he attended an institute in French Switzerland in order to study foreign languages. There he took to fasting until at length he felt ill and departed.
After passing the cantonal teacher's examination he was employed as vicar in several places. Although as a teacher he was learned and was good to the children, he could not find a permanent position. The reason, was his peculiar manner of living. Since the beginning of his rheumatic condition he had tried every conceivable kind of cure, even to magnetism and spiritualism. He took long walks, bathed for several hours every day, at times during the night. Gradually he withdrew from the society of others, until, as a result of trying to enforce his mode of living upon his pupils, he was obliged to give up his calling.
For about eight years he had been living with his eighty year old mother who was mentally abnormal. He was known in the neighborhood as a queer but harmless fellow. Latterly, however, he had begun to
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hear voices and to consider himself as an apostle, chosen to go out and preach God's laws. Thereupon, his mother was given over to the care of her daughter and the patient committed to a hospital.
At the hospital he was conspicuous for his comical outward appearance. Physical examination revealed the fact that his penis was distorted as a result of the patient's manipulations. He was reserved and quiet, politely friendly to the doctor. He always sat in the same spot, busied with books or newspapers. Only as the result of direct questioning did he volunteer any information as to his ideas of persecution. After three months he was released to the care of his sister with the diagnosis of paranoia.
A few months later he was again brought to the hospital. The patient, somewhat excited, reported that he had been tortured by his sister, who robbed him and tried to poison him. He had escaped and reported the matter to the police.
During his second stay at the hospital he was again quiet, industrious, and helpful. But close observation revealed the fact that an inner change was working in him. Presently he began to perform queer actions; made cold compresses which he placed upon his genitals. Upon one occasion he undressed. During a whole day he refused to urinate. At night he talked to himself and sometimes called out of the window. This excitation finally culminated in a catatonic stupor. The diagnosis of paranoia was changed to that of catatonia. Since that time the patient has been subject every few months to a stupor-like condition which gives way, at the end of seven to ten days, to a proportionately more quiet interval.
During the paranoidal stage the patient claimed that sexuality was the cause of his remarkable manner of living. At the age of fourteen he began to masturbate but soon ceased this practice. He had “fallen,” i.e., had had intercourse six times. This he had also given up. Subsequently he had been subject to pollutions which caused him to fear for his health. In spite of the various cures undertaken, the pollutions continued. He then resorted to spiritualism; undertook experiments with remarkable results. Spirits directed his hands in playing musical instruments. Clouds of fog took the form of women and approached him. Odors of women he knew came to him. According to him, evil thoughts produced like spirits. During these manifestations the patient suffered erections and discharges.
As a result of his experiments he came to believe in the existence of a spirit world. Failing to get relief from the spirit world, he resolved to make no further experiments, but resorted to physical exercise and cold baths. During the baths he exercised a strict control of his thoughts. Above all things in the world, he feared the loss of semen.
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As a result he was afraid to urinate. He was in the habit of rushing to his room and rubbing his legs, in order to divert the blood from his sex organs. But the evil spirits would not leave him in peace.
During this period the patient heard voices out of the fourth dimension, the future, etc., proclaiming him the savior of mankind. All nature seemed to be at one with his spirit. He now recalled various natural disturbances, such as comets and forest fires which had occurred at the time of his birth.
The patient's struggles resulted in his evolving the following theory concerning semen:
God, the Father of all, created semen. He gave it to mortals to keep for the purpose of achieving ever greater perfection. Man's first and greatest sin was the giving up of semen to the Devil.
Death is but a condition of weakness caused by the giving up of semen. At death mortals become spirits. They seek to gratify their own desires by causing mortals to suffer. Suffering has a weakening effect on them, since they have no means of rehabilitating themselves. Those spirits that are reborn without suffering, develop more quickly than the others into mortals.
Through the giving up of semen, mortals sink to the level of animals, plants, etc. There is thus a migration of souls. Sexual intercourse on earth leads to ruin. If mortals retain their semen they will not die but will become gods.
The patient, through his struggles, had acquired power over the elements. He was already near the state of “absolute perfection.”
Thus far we see the development of “introversion” in the patient. The pollutions are signs of an intensive repression of the libido. They are often a cover symptom for fantasies, especially incest fantasies.
The patient manifests the typical paranoidal projection of his complex into the outer world in the form of persecution by spirits who draw his semen from him. The female form created out of air is the prototype of all further mother-surrogates. The patient's megalomania leads him to identify himself with his God. His theory concerning semen is an attempt at sublimation, a rationalizing protection against incest.
The first catatonic attack took place about two months after the patient's second internment. One day the patient suddenly began to eat meat. On the following afternoon he urinated upon the floor and was in consequence, put to bed. For eleven days he lay motionless, his left hand clutching his penis, his right hand behind his head. He showed no reaction when addressed or touched. Gradually the condition disappeared.
Concerning this attack the patient made the following statements. At first it seemed to him that those about him were trying to rid themselves of him by means of coal gas, by putting excrement into his food,
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etc. Next he fancied that all humans wished to emigrate to a better life on the moon or the sun. All animals and plants were to become human beings. He began to fear that he was too heavy to be transported on account of the semen he had retained. Thereupon he commenced to masturbate, in order to bring out the semen. He was obliged to swallow these ejections and to retain both urine and feces. Nothing was to be left behind on earth. If he lacked perseverance, various birds would come to remind him. He believed that the whole world was threatened with a flood. Rats and mice came and gnawed at his genitals.
During this time a black man six feet high appeared, dressed in a black masquerade costume. The covering on his face contained deep holes for his eyes. On his head was a cone-shaped cap. All persons on one side of him were clad in black; all those on the other side in white. At his entrance a terrible commotion ensued among the patients. It seemed as though the black man were the executioner.
The content of this attack denotes the struggle between introversion and transference. A doubt has now arisen concerning the retention of the semen. But at the same time the animals of fear (rats and mice) threaten to rob him of his libido.
If we turn to mythology for an interpretation, we find that the black man is similar to certain Greek and Roman deities. Statues which have been unearthed show such figures to be cloaked phalli. Jung has pointed out the phallistic nature of conical caps. The whole vision is reminiscent of ancient burial ceremonials. The black man appears then to be a personified phallus conducting a burial.
The birds who came to remind the patient represent his parents. The whole attack appears to have been an attempt at a cure.
The second catatonic attack came on gradually. The patient began to perform queer actions. He spoke continually of his bride the Queen of Heaven, with whom he imagined himself as having intercourse. Soon he descended into a catatonic stupor; refused to take nourishment. At times he lay for hours with arms outstretched, in the form of a cross. After a few days he began to perform certain actions, as though in his sleep. He curled himself up into unusual positions, turned somersaults, masturbated ostentatiously, etc.
During this attack the patient's personality was split into a subjective and an objective ego. His objective self lay in bed in a catatonic stupor, his subjective self took part in his fantasy experiences. Toward the end of the attack the objective ego began to demand of the subjective portion proof of these fantasies. Thereupon the patient returned to reality. At about the end of a week the patient declared that the Queen of Heaven had put him through certain tests. Then followed transference to the analyst, to whom the patient delivered a kiss from the queen.
After the cessation of the attack it was possible to obtain insight into
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the patient's fantasies. If during the analysis he forgot details, the queen whispered them to him. It is a noteworthy fact that the queen always spoke Swiss-German! Upon his being interrupted, she suddenly ceased to speak.
A letter written by the patient to the Pope, and other documents contained the statements that he was the savior of mankind, the bridegroom of the Queen of Heaven. He claimed that voices had communicated these facts to him; that through his union with the queen he would first attain physical and mental soundness, subsequently deliver mankind from a dread future.
The following fantasies describe the content of the patient's catatonic state.
According to the patient's statements, he was lying in bed in a hypnotic state. From his navel there sprang his subjective self, a “muscular handsome man possessed of the gifts and qualities of a god.” The subjective self's first task was to battle with his enemy, R. (the night attendant). This enemy, according to the patient, was a doctor who carried out the most loathsome sexual practices. The patient described in great'detail his battles with the enemy and his final triumph.
During his attack hordes of girls and boys came to him to be cured by contact with his genitals. Upon one occasion he fought in defense of the queen. Whereupon songs were sung in his honor; and the oldest doctor preached a sermon upon Paul S., teacher, molder of men, conqueror of nations, creator and destroyer of earth, expander into worlds, producer of seeds, minerals, plants, and animals representative of God.
Another fantasy pictured his subjective self playing violin selections in a beautiful, heartrending manner. He was able to change his sex organs at will into those of the masculine, feminine and “neuter” genders. According to the change effected he was approached by men, women, or children whose advances he fought off.
The chief fantasy during this period was that of his struggle with his father, who appeared with a steer's head, a live snake for a tongue and other animalistic features. Other fantasies pictured the patient as being bitten by snakes and scorpions. Remarkable are the mythological attributes accredited to his father by the patient. The animalistic features all symbolized the sun, the life-restoring force of nature.
The following fantasies deal with the patient's Godly origin. He claimed to have been crucified three times. He was the Creator, Father of all, of his two daughters, Mathilda (the name of the patient's own sister) represented the Devil. Hulda, the other daughter, possessed the virtues of the Heavenly Queen. Mathilda sapped his strength by drawing his semen from him. In these fantasies the identification of the patient with his father is apparent.
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The patient traced his genealogy from the creator, through such characters as Charlemagne and Peter the Great, to his own parents.
Toward the end of the attack his objective self began to demand proof of his Godhood. Thereupon the patient discontinued the story of his Godly origin. Furthermore, the queen began to appear in more modern guise.
Upon investigation, the queen proved to be the combination of a number of washwomen, former pupils, acquaintances, and women whose photographs had attracted the patient. All these women, he reported, bore a “striking resemblance” to a photograph of his mother, taken in her youth.
He and the queen through their union, were to become one God, the savior of mankind. Human beings would then be enabled to enjoy the pleasures of earth without losing strength or suffering pain. To defeat this purpose the patient's enemies were trying by every possible means to do away with him.
During the third catatonic attack the patient became noisy and aggressive, spoke of being poisoned and desired to be left alone with the queen.
Analysis revealed the fact that the period between the second and third attacks marked the approach of the queen, and also an attack from the enemy. During this period the patient had to be in readiness, either to receive the queen or to ward off the enemy. Upon one occasion he was obliged to repell the advances of his sister Mathilda; again he had to defend himself against his mother, who desired to “use him” for sexual purposes. Gradually he experienced a return to his former Godhood.
It appeared that his numerous sons had violated their mother, the queen. She thereupon returned nightly to the patient in order to obtain renewed strength through his semen.
After the cessation of this attack the patient became more reserved than before. The voice of the queen gradually became inaudible to him. He desired to resume his former method of living; to continue his baths. He produced no further fantasies worthy of note.
The following infantile reminiscences give the patient's characterization of his relatives.
The patient's father, according to him, was stern but good to his son until he saw that the boy, at the age of fifteen, was attracted by a voluptuous looking girl. On his deathbed he bade his son exercise control over his thoughts. His father must, therefore, have been a strong, pugnacious man, versed in evil deeds.
His mother he described as a harlot who, through witchcraft, sought to entice him as well as others. She, as well as his sister, had the power of transforming herself into various beings.
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His sister, according to the patient, continually repulsed him, on account of his insignificance. This arrested development on his part—both psysically and mentally—he attributed to the prostitution of his relatives. He declared furthermore, that most of his pollutions were caused by his sister.
Number symbolism played an important part in the patient's fantasies: For example, he declared the number six (in German sex) exercised a great influence in his life.
Besides the fantasies produced during the catatonic attacks, the patient related a number of visions and dreams. These he regarded, not as actual experiences but as “pictures.” These images, changing in form, have a cinematographic character. They may be regarded as cinematographic pseudohallucinations. Their symbolism reveals a combination of birth and intrauterine existence fantasies.
In connection with Freud's article on the double meaning of words and Bleuler's theory of ambivalency, the author gives examples to show how the patient used certain words to express two opposite meanings.
In conclusion, Nelken points out that this case is interesting, in that it shows a transition from one subvariety of dementia precox into another. This case of paranoia after years breaks out in an acute catatonia and after the catatonia has run its course he goes back to his paranoid condition. The whole course of the psychosis can be stated as follows:
A long conditioned paranoid state—catatonic attack—grading off into the paranoid—paranoid period of latency—gradual recurrence of a catatonic attack. From the psychoanalytic standpoint, Nelken says that the difference between the paranoic and catatonic conditions are purely quantitative and depend upon the strength of the repression. The course of the regression from the normal condition in schizophrenics is first the paranoid state and then the catatonic. In the paranoid state there is an intensive attempt to adjust to the outer world and a rationalization of his complex by intellectual means. In addition to the paranoid mechanisms of projection which result in delusion of persecution there is the pathological striving for health which results in the attempt to save the world and improve it. He also builds up his semen theory and begins to lay down the foundation of his ideas of grandeur. The fundamental complex in this state is still very deep in his unconscious. The catatonic attack is due to an increase of his introversion to such a degree that no adjustment to the outer world is possible. The material that he now uses to build up his nuclear complex the patient gets out of his infantile individual experiences and historical layers of his unconscious. The result is a tremendous hallucinatory discharge in fantasies and a physical discharge in stereotypies. If we look upon the paranoid state as an unsuccessful attempt at sublimation, the catatonic attack can be looked upon as a complete substitution of reality by the unconscious.
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From the psychoanalytic viewpoint, Nelken thinks that the psychosis of this patient can be looked upon as a flight into disease which will give him compensation for those unsatisfied desires he has experienced in reality. In his fantasies many complexes make their appearance. He compensates for his bodily insignificance, his disappointments, his inferior social position, his failures, his artistic aspiration, etc. All these before are but minor complexes and are assimilated by the one powerful complex which runs through his whole psychosis and radiates in every possible direction, namely, his incestcomplex. His incest is without limits. In his fantasies his mother and sisters seduce him. He castrates and kills his father. His father seduces his wife and desires his death. His wife is the Queen of Heaven and becomes his mother. He himself is raped by his daughter. His son, the black dwarf, castrates him. His sons, whom he has produced through the Queen of Heaven, raped their own mother in desire to get him, their father, out of the way.
This central complex shoves all the rest to one side and takes possession of every fantasy that the patient produces. The external manifestations in his complex are protean, the complex remains the same. The content of his very rich fantasies is very poor. Each can always be reduced to the one conflict which, rooted in the infantile life of the patient, he never overcomes. The development of the conflict and its transition into disease is chronologically pictured. The repression of the incest gradually leads to an increasing introversion and shows itself in the fantastic projections and the secondary rationalizations of the paranoid state. The height of the repression is revealed as the destruction of the world, this being a projection of his inner destruction and represents complete withdrawal of the libido from the outer world. Thereupon the repressed material attempts to break through in the hallucinatory form but is again repressed.
The symbols which the patient uses to express his nuclear complex show many archaic roots. Nelken agrees with the view of Jung that psychopathologic symbolism is nothing but prehistoric and ancient symbolism. He quotes Jung that the soul can be, so to speak, divided into historical layers, the oldest layers being synonymous with the unconscious. As a result, introversion on the pathway of regression picks up the reminiscences of the individual; then in the increased introversion the historical unconscious^ is tapped and there results archaic forms of thought and conduct which are nothing but the renaissance of past mental products.
Nuclear complexes have their roots in the historical past. This patient, not having overcome it, projects his complex upon the entire world and by mechanism of regression he steps down to the deepest historical layers of his unconscious, through a whole series of past epochs down to the most primitive time of humanity. The symbolism
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that the patient makes use of to portray his incest fantasies is for the most part the symbolism of the sun worshipers.
According to mythological analogies, the patient's fantasies are nothing but the myth of a God who castrates and kills his father, the old Sun God. He then identifies himself with his father only to fall under the curse of incest himself.
A Few Cases of Compulsion Neurosis.—One of the cases reported in this paper is published in English in the author's “Papers on Psychoanalysis,” second edition, 1919, chapter 30. Both the original article and the small case report in his book are among the best and most detailed studies of the obsessional neuroses published.
Regarding Symbol Formation,—In an article that appeared in Vol. III, part II, of the Jahrbuch (abstracted in Vol. VIII, 1921, p. 434, of The Psychoanalytic Review) Silberer attempted to describe the processes that are involved in the formation of symbols according to their genesis. Examples were given whose purpose was to explain and substantiate his principles. Since his theories were to be applied to the whole field of symbolism he felt that he should give examples from hypnagogic and hypnapompic hallucinations. This article is the first in a series that will attempt to cover the field of dreams, day dreams, the various pathological fantasy formations in the manifestations of hysteria, of compulsionneurosis, and perhaps of somë of the psychoses, in poetry, the development of philosophical knowledge, myths, fairy tales, folk lore, religion and superstitions. This article treats of symbols in dreams. He takes for granted a knowledge of his previous publications on the subject but goes on to state their most important contents and to amplify them.
Every symbol is a symbol only in so far as it bears a relation to the something that it stands for. A symbol arises only when a positive factor such as an idea, thought or complex desires to become conscious but is inhibited by a negative factor: the apperceptive insufficiency. This insufficiency can be either intellectual or affective, that is it can be due, first, to defective development (child, individual or group immaturity) or to a passing weakness of the apperceptive powers (such as sleep, etc.) or secondly the insufficiency is the result of an interference by those affects which through the pleasure-pain mechanism hinder the entrance of an idea or deflect some of the energy of attention to autonomous complexes. When affective forces disturb the advance of an idea they act, not only in a negative way but also positively in that they also desire admission to consciousness and thus become “positive” factors striving towards symbolic expresion. The result of such a competition between two or more “positive” factors is either a conglomerate of
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symbols or a symbol constructed of many parts in which the various objects symbolized are represented in a distorted fashion. In so far as we are able to trace the connection of the symbol to one of the objects from which it arises we get the picture of type 11 which will be described below.
Symbols also have a manifold significance even where no affective elements play their part. Even the very simplest ones, those that are the result of intellectual apperceptive insufficiency, show condensation. But the separate elements are clearly related to various aspects of the thing symbolized and express the idea clearly.
Silberer's well known classification of symbols is based upon the nature of the “positive” factor, i.e., the latent idea or object that seeks admission to consciousness.
First there is “materialsymbol” when it represents the matter of thinking such as thoughts, concepts, ideas, etc., be they conscious or unconscious.
Second the “functional symbol” when it portrays the function of the mind, its state, its activity or its structure.
Third, the somatic symbol which pictures the bodily functions.
This classification, especially the first two, Silberer considers very fruitful. Most of the psychoanalytic literature treated only the material type. The author has devoted most of his interest to the functional type. He therefore gives but five examples of the material category in which are classed all the wish fulfillment dreams. Sixty-five dreams and their interpretation are then givien in which Silberer elucidates his conception of the functional mechanism of the dream. They are decidedly worthwhile reading. The best is the following, part of a dream of Pauline:
“I took a walk, it was fall, withered grass and bush, a real autumn mood, and towards evening I come to a graveyard and go in. I think: My God now I'm alone in a cemetery at night, a feeling of anxious tension overcomes me. But I do not fear,” (added later: “I get into a sort of courage born of despair in which I think, it's nothing, I'll put myself above everything and bring destruction. This sort of courage I've often had in despairing situations.”) “Suddenly I have wings, become black all over and fly over the graves. And wherever I flew I brought death. I think, to whom will you first1 … where will you first fly. And I flew first to O, a place I had not thought of, to bring death there first … Now I don't know, I did not arrive there, I was suddenly somewhere in a small house where I should have to go in a small upper room. There were no stairs, a ladder was there. I went up the ladder. Instead of a door there was a small circular hole through which I
1 The hesitation is of significance.
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could not get, and Emma2 was already in the room and said, ‘Come on, I got through without any trouble,’ and I tried it but it simply could not be done. Then I placed myself on a prominence and with the ladder as a lever I pried a board out of the supposed door. Thus I got in, I took the ladder with me, no one could then come in, there was no ladder or anything. In the room there were only garden benches, no other furniture, benches with soft, curved back rests, comfortable to lean against. I sat in one and felt so well, so good and happy just as if one wanted to remain seated for a long time. Emma said, ‘Don't be so lazy. Come and take a walk.’ I went unwillingly, so unwillingly.”
Interpretation: The autumn mood and being alone in the evening are thoughts of Pauline concerning her fate in life. She thinks of her fading youth, of the approach of the evening of life which she must meet without having found a life companion. She is in the graveyard of her hopes and apprehension possesses her. Then her life seeking courage rouses itself. She pulls herself together and tries to shake off her melancholy thoughts. Ergo a being above something. This well known tendency clothes itself in the picture of flying—functional symbolism which only as the result of certain material relations acquires a particular form: Pauline becomes a black angel of death which, as she afterwards remarked, was especially noticed by her in the dream.
The hesitation in the dream discloses the significance of the death angel in the very act of concealing it. Pauline will not entertain the thought that she wished death to any one. If the sentence which was begun had been finished it would have been “Whom will you first kill?” She evades its completion by the phrase, “Where will you first fly?” Not only the relating of the dream but the dream itself, now that the death wish has expressed itself, is set upon concealment. It lets the dreamer fly to O where another Pauline is acting in an unsympathetic manner but one that plays no part in the dreamer's life. A death wish directed against this woman has no justification. She is naturally only a substitute for someone else. The development of the dream should have brought about the death of someone by Pauline. This concept is persona non grata. It develops that the substitution of the really meant person by the woman in O. is an insufficient reconnoitering; nothing is left but to leave the murderous thoughts which threaten to achieve consciousness and to ban them to another psychic region to protect oneself from them. This is done by means of the functional symbolism of changing the scenes. Here she rescues herself by the troublesome crawling into a distant room where no one can follow her, where the murderous thoughts cannot come up. Now she is safe and feels at peace.
Pauline feels herself as well upon the benches as she once did on her mother's lap or even in her womb where Pauline certainly was free
2 An older friend of Pauline whom she often goes out with, especially on trips to the country, and where Emma is always the leader.
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from all sorrow. The trained analyst will surely have recognized the climbing up the ladder then through a narrow opening into a room as birth or intrauterine fantasy. It serves the wish to be as untroubled as she was in the uterus. The intrauterine fantasy is the retrograde form of the deathfantasy. And here it is an especially extended functional expression for hiding herself from her murderous thoughts. Before the ladder is drawn up, which protects her from her torturing thoughts, these thoughts are still potent, one has only to consider that Pauline uses the ladder like a murderous instrument. As she afterwards admits, Pauline felt rage towards Emma at this place in the dream. The analysis reveals that Emma is a substitute for Pauline's younger sister Regina. Pauline when a child had envied her because this sister had deprived her of a part of her parents' love. She had complained of this to certain people and to people in O because “there was now a bad Regina who sat upon Mother's lap.” If now in the natural course of events Regina came out of her mother after Pauline, therefore in the retrograde fantasy she (i.e., her substitute Emma) had to go in first and Pauline could then follow. Naturally Pauline would as a child have been glad to see her rival disappear. This death wish (in the dream portrayed as rage against Emma) forms, so to speak, the emotional association between the two scenes of the dream. The death wish towards the sister is the least dangerous, the furthest removed and it also is quieted as soon as the births are undone.
The bad thoughts are now dispersed. Pauline rests upon the soft bench (of her mother's uterus—materialsymbol: forgetting—functional symbol) which she so unwillingly leaves. But to whom is it that Pauline in her unconscious wishes death? Over whose graves does she fly? Who is it that deserves, so to speak, her death wishes. We discover that when we are told that Richard, beloved by Pauline, is married and has children. Richard's wife in the first place and his children in the second—for the latter prevented Richard from divorcing his wife—are the objects of Pauline's unconsciousdeath wishes.
These obstacles and the moral thoughts that flowed from them caused Pauline to break with Richard. At the time of the dream she believed—and here we come to the chief key to functional symbolism—that Richard and everything about him had been forgotten by her. She has a new affair which she treasures and finds beautiful and in which the liabilities of the other affair are absent. But a few days ago when in the distance she saw Richard. She was mightily aroused and was astonished at her own emotions. It seemed as if the dead do come to life. Here we have the real inciter of the dream. The cemetery is not only her dead hopes but also her buried thoughts of Richard from whom she flies away.
Silberer considers this the best dream he has come across to illustrate functional symbolism. The somatic type of symbols are not of the same value as the functional and material types. Although the dream often
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contains somatic symbols Silberer found that they followed the Freudian theory in that they are most often in the service of the other two types. It seems probable, and as P. Fedem attempted to show, that flying in dreams is induced by a heart irritation, or a change in respiration or a sensation of dizziness or an erection. These somatic processes are immediately transformed into an action which expresses the intention of either the material or functional types in such a way that flying is used for a certain purpose or to intensify the meaning of a situation. Motor paralysis occurring in sleep is utilized in the same way, i.e., to help in the representation of a conflict. For this reason Silberer gives no examples of the somatic type especially since there is a classical group of them in Schemer's book “On the Dream.”
An Intellectual Component of the Father Complex.—Four-year-old Emmy wishes to be a cook and have twenty children.
Mother: “Yes, but who is to be their papa?”
Emmy: “But I have a papa.”
Mother: “But that's your papa and he belongs to me.”
Emmy: “Yes, that's our papa, my papa and your papa and my children's papa.”
The next day when questioned she persisted: “Papa belongs to us all three.”
Bleuler explains this belief of the child. Its nebulous concept of the father within the family is that he is just the father. Papa is papa, just as the table is the table for all without regard to personal relations. At the same the child is clear on the fact that its playmates' father occupies the same position in the other household. This latter form of thinking is only used where reality demands it. When thinking artistically she leaves this fact out of consideration especially as twenty children are conjured up and sleep ten in a bed in the guest room. Papa is the father of Emmy's children because he is “the” papa. This error of thinking is of the same kind as the child's inability to use the word “me” because as each one uses it means a different person (Emmy's intelligence by Binet's Tests is normal; she solves the five and six-year tests without trouble).
This concept of Emmy's seems so natural that it is probably of frequent occurrence. In view of the fact that infantile concepts persist into and influence later thinking, especially the autistic type, it would seem probable that this idea is not without influence upon the parent complex.
Bleuler wishes distinctly to be understood as not undervaluing the erotic moment in this subject, on the contrary, the heterosexual aspect of her relation to her father was early manifested. It may also be of significance that Emmy had long since been informed of the source of children (but not of conception), but she simply refused to take any
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stock in it. At times she aggressively announced her own birth theories even although they contradicted reality. When her mother was with child and after it came Emmy showed distinct envy, not of her brother, but because her mother had a child and she had not.
Forel's Position Towards Psychoanalysis.—Bleuler replies to Forel's criticisms of the Freudian school: first, that they pretty thoroughly ignore the works of their predecessors in the field; second, that they set up all sorts of hypotheses as facts.
The first charge Bleuler thinks is not entirely false, but then, says he, “To give credit to all these predecessors one would have to write thick, tiresome, and useless volumes.” It is true, he says, that others have observed the facts Freud points out, but then it remained for Freud to set them in their logical order; that is his great contribution. Forel's second critical objection is that Freud emphasizes the sexual factor in the neuroses and looks upon sex as their sole cause. Bleuler rightly answers that taken literally, that is not true. If Freud and his followers have found sex as an essential element in the causation of neuroses, the only answer is for others to investigate and bring forth other factors. Forel further attacks the extension of the concept of sexuality.
The total impression left upon Bleuler of Forel's position is that although he attacks Freud where he thinks it necessary, there is more agreement than disagreement. Bleuler also finds that Freud has had more experience in just those fields where Forel disagrees with him; and, finally, Bleuler thinks that the disagreement is not upon essentials.
Concerning the Function of the Dream.—Maeder states that the dream has a teleological function in addition to its sleep-guarding and cathartic function, as Freud has stated. He maintains that definite actions, resolutions and solutions of conflicts are prepared by the-dream and that the dream has a decisive effect upon future behavior. He supports this idea by observations that are designed to show that a short time after the remembered (but unanalyzed dream) a real decision (or act) was accomplished in the conscious state by the dreamer in a matter that had before this been undecided. This decision was then found by analysis to be contained in the dream.
Maeder calls this a secondary function of the dream and cites as parallels the works of Groos and Carr on the biological conception of play. These authors consider play not as a form of recreation but as preparatory exercise in the adaptation to life. According to Carr, play has the further function in that it supplies the organism with the stimuli that provoke its growth, especially that of the nervous system; and in addition play has the important function of being a method of catharsis.
Maeder believes that the dream has these functions also, “the dream is a purposive canalization of antisocial instincts.” He also sees in day
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dreams and fantasies this adjustment tendency through catharsis and preparatory exercise.
The Problem of Spermatozoa Dreams.—In a previous paper on “Spermatozoa Dreams” (Jahrbuch, Vol. 4, Part 1) Silberer related a dream which he interpreted as a spermatozoa fantasy or the fantasy of being incorporated into the father's body. He considered these fantasies as the expression of a wish for the regression of life and compared them to the “Mutterliebsphantasien.”
This paper is to give further evidence for his thesis and to clear up disputed points. Not every dream that contains elements that point to their interpretation as spermatozoa are to be considered spermatozoa dreams. They can be part of fertilization, developmental or other ideas. The genuine spermatozoa dream must contain a real spermatozoa fantasy; that is, one that puts the dreamer among the spermatozoa. Nor need it be a death wish in its narrowest sense. If the individual fantasies himself into such a situation, it may be the striving to break with his present life, to begin anew, to be reborn. The dream may therefore be looked upon as having a progressive tendency.
A Criticism.—This is a lengthy but clear and erudite reply to Artur Kronfeld's “A Systematic and Critical Discussion of the Psychological Theories of Freud and Allied Viewpoints” which first appeared in the “Archiv für die Gesamte Psychologie Bd. XXII H. 2-3. It was the most exhaustive and greatest critical attempt among the opponents of Freud made up to that time.
That this reply of Rosenstein's cannot be abstracted is evident, but both Kronfeld's paper and Rosenstein's answer are well worth reading in the original.
A Call to Principles.—Silberer makes a plea for more thorough work on the part of those engaged in applying the method of psychoanaylsis in those fields that lie outside of its original domain, viz., psychopathology. He desires not only that every discovery be incorporated into the body of psychoanalytic knowledge but also that thereafter the new knowledge be presented in relation to the entire subject treated. He asks that authors take the time to treat their material not only from the psychoanalytic viewpoint but all other viewpoints and thus show their interrelationship. The failure to do this has caused many experts in extra medical fields to view psychoanalytic contributions to their subject with academic prejudice.
He wishes the workers in these fields would remember that pure psychoanalytic mastery of their subjects is only a first step; the second step that of a true incorporation of the psychoanalytic results into the main body of their subjects as the second and hardly less important task.
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Blumgart, L. (1925). Jahrbuch Für Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Forschungen. Psychoanal. Rev., 12(3):335-370