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Hendrick, I. (1933). Die Psychoanalytische Bewegung: (The Psychoanalytic Movement). Psychoanal. Rev., 20(2):221-232.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Die Psychoanalytische Bewegung: (The Psychoanalytic Movement)
Volume I (1929), Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, Vienna
This is a new journal in German devoted entirely to psychoanalytic topics, appearing in compact folios bimonthly under the editorship of A. J. Storfer (Vienna). An introduction states that its purpose will extend beyond professional analytic topics, so that non-analysts with an intellectual interest in the science, may be kept informed of its progress. The Table of Contents shows how well this purpose is fulfilled by the variety of its subject matter, consisting for the most part of original articles of less than a half dozen pages, reviews, and comments; and by the variety of contributors, which include well known analysts, philosophers, and preeminent novelists. Some articles are scientific, some are in the field of application of analysis to non-medical culture, and some are about analysis as seen by those in other professions. Various events of interest in the “psychoanalytic movement” are reported. Current criticisms of psychoanalysts are noted, often without dialectic commentary.
Number 1: May and June, 1929
Die Zeitschriften der Psychoanalyse (Psychoanalytic Journals) Prefatory Remarks
Thomas Mann. Die Stellung Frends in der Modernen Geistes-geschichte (The Position of Freud in the History of Modern Culture).— This German recipient of the Nobel Prize inscribes a profoundly understanding and philosophical essay in honor of Freud. He finds his greatest interest in that work which is least medical, “Totem and Taboo,” and considers its artistic qualities make it a “piece of world literature.” This book is the fulfillment of Nietzsche's prophecy, that an intellectual revolution was about to demonstrate that the materialism of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries of German science and the maudlin Romanticism of literature, had exhausted its possibilities. Though it arise from primary medical interests, psychoanalysis has transformed the course of culture, reinstating appraisal of the soul. The essayist comments on the parallelism of a passage in his own “Magic Mountain” and Freud's “Beyond the Pleasure Principle,” though he had read practically none of Freud at that time. His present essay shows a comprehension rare
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except among those not professional analysts for the fundamental meaning and significance of the unconscious, the conflicts of sex and morality, and the primitive impulses which motivate neurosis. More scientifically minded enthusiasts than Thomas Mann might, however, not refer to the Libido Theory as “Romanticism disrobed of the mystical and revealed as science.” He ascribes a revolutionary effect to Freud's philosophy, but one which is the opposite of catastrophe, and epigramatically calls “Psychoanalysis” (that is, its philosophical implications) “the medical form of revolution.,”
Hanns Sachs (Berlin). Die Erlernung der Psychoanalyse (Psychoanalytic Education).—This preeminent training analyst reviews the qualifications for analysis, the reason why training analysis is essential, and the didactic and clinical educational methods of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute.
Frankfurter Psychoanalytisches Institut. Announcement of its opening.
S. Ferenczi (Budapest). Männlich und Weiblich (Male and Female).—An abbreviated version of his monograph, “Versuch nach einer Genitaltheorie.”
Theodore Reik (Berlin), Erfolg und unbewusste Gewissensangst (Success and Fear of Conscience).—A summary of theoretical portion of “Der Schrecken und andere psychoanalytische Studien,” and other works of the author.
A. J. Storfer (Vienna). Beiträge zur Psychoanalytischen Bibliographie (Contributions to Psychoanalytic Bibliography).—Bibliographies of psychoanalytic references to four topics: Plato and Freud, Music, Asthma, and Ibsen.
Robert Walder (Vienna). Sexual Symbolik bei Naturvölker (Sexual Symbolism among Primitive People). Schröther and Rofifenstein, and Bettheim and Hartmann have produced sexual symbolism experimentally. An ethnological book of the Catholic missionary, Pater I. Winthius, states and illustrates that many examples of primitive language, manner, and art show conscious use of what is unconscious sexual symbolism among cultivated peoples.
Zur Traumlehre (Note on the Theory of Dreams).—Dream-interpretation resembling psychoanalysis in Bocaccio, a dream-theory published 150 years ago, and dream literature of 1928 (analytic and non-analytic).
Das Echo der Psychoanalyse (Echos of Psychoanalysis).—Publications of three Catholic Congresses on “Religion and Suffering of the Soul” contain favorable and unfavorable references to psychoanalysis.
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Professor Friedrick Kraus has published a banal criticism terming analysis a “Romantic Appearance in Medicine.” August Vetter emphasizes the empiricism of analysis. Other references to psychoanalysis in current literature.
Number 2: July and August, 1929
Arnold Zweig. Freud und der Mensch (Freud and Human Beings).—The flowering style of this eminent novelist adds feeling to an intellectual eulogy of the clearsightedness, the practical experience, and the courage of Freud in his investigations. “Men no longer see in themselves a brooding chaos, but inexhaustible flagons of forces, with purposeful aims, whose paths can and must be investigated.” “Man no longer has Hells around him and under him, in which Devils and evil spirits make the evils of the world supreme.”
ERNEST JONES (London). Die Insel Irland (The Island of Ireland).— In this “psychoanalytic contribution to political psychology,” the English analyst suggests that the persistent hostility against England and Catholicism can no better be accounted for on racial dynastic, and economic grounds than the relative friendship of Scotland and Wales. Of the many causes, only the significance of Ireland's being a small and isolated island is discussed. Insularity is the symbol of the virgin mother's womb. The feminine value of Ireland for its inhabitants is emphasized by the extraordinary number of female names they apply to it, and by their national poetry. All allegories and saga of a magic island are expressive of desire to return to mother, and nowhere are these so common as in Ireland. Moreover, Ireland retained in its religion the worship of the Virgin, nowhere is real virginity more highly valued, several of their revolutionaries are Irish only on their mother's side, and their political oratory most emphatically appeals to Ireland as their “motherland.”
“Die game Menschheit als Patient” (AH Mankind as Patient).—The editor supports Reik in believing psychoanalysis should be more than individual therapy, it should include social hygiene and reform.
Franz Alexander and Hugo Staub. Der Kampf urns Recht (The Battle for Justice).—An extract from the sociological and theoretical portion of the author's book, “The Criminal and His Judges.”
Hanns Sachs (Berlin). Zur Psychologie des Films (Psychology of the Movies).—This collaborator on a film which represents pictorially a fragment of psychoanalysis, comments (before the tone-film appeared), on the possibilities in film art of replacing speech by slight gestures and errors of everyday life. He gives three examples from Russian films, by which
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a powerful dramatic effect is produced by displacing the significant feature to an objectively trivial detail.
Theodor Reik (Berlin). Anspielung und Entblössung (Alluding and Disclosing).—That type of wit which uses an indifferent detail to reveal a thought is compared to the erotic stimulus of revealing a fragment of nakedness. It induces the idea of the forbidden whole by a slight detail. It must satisfy both exhibitionism and convention. The technique of allusion in wit applies to the technique of other effective allusions.
Richard Behrendt. Das Problem Führer und Masse und die Psychoanalyse (The Problem of Leader and Masses in Psychoanalysis).— The application of psychoanalysis of the individual to sociology does not oppose other views, but deepens the insight. Behrendt criticizes the assumption that laws of group-reaction contradict or suspend those of the individual; such theories describe effects on individuals, but do not explain them. Freud considers mass phenomena as expressions of the instincts of the individuals, and the group as submission of these individuals to an idealized leader, mutual identifications of its members. Behrendt distinguishes evanescent “masses,” and permanent “social groups.” A mass develops from a crowd when a mutual will to overcome an obstacle arises, and a leader is consequently followed, or when a crowd is attacked, and the common feeling is focused on a leader. There is always a leader, though he may be chosen secondary to the mass feeling, and without permanence. A mass becomes a panic through fear, most often from loss of the leader. Masses become groups through organization with functional specialization, and tend to lose the personal, inspirational leader. The “we” becomes an “it.” The leader is replaced by an abstract idea, and finally this becomes a motive of serving the group for its own sake, to which libido is transferred from the original leader to the idea of the group, and the surrogates for the original leader then represent the idea. The group bonds are irrational. Freud and Lorand emphasize the leader is always the primal father, while Federn emphasizes regression to child-father ontogeny. These are hypotheses. Erwin Kahn has found the necessary precondition of leadership an extreme homosexual narcissism, with identification replacing object love, while the activating condition is a desire to save through mother-identification. The narcissism is that of father-hypnosis, the mother-identification that of mother-hypnosis. Author adds the leader must be predominantly antisocial, striving to attain sociality by revolutionizing society to suit his instinctual claims.
Hans Cornioley (Bern). Sexualsymbolik in der “Frommen Helene” von Wilhelm Busch (Sexual Symbolism in “Pious Helen,” by Wilhelm Busch).—The unconscious of religion-hating bachelor artist and poet is reflected in this satire on piety, which discloses the conflict of erotism and piety in a typically female heroine.
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Editha Sterba. Pflastersteine (Paving-stones). Many, or most, passers-by on a paved street show some peculiarity of gait which is related to the pattern of the stones. Case reports by Federn and Achelis of such symptoms show such gaits to be controlled by an unconscious magical idea.
Askese und Sadomasochismus (Asceticism and Sadomasochism).— The editor reviews a book by the Norwegian clergyman and pupil of Pfister, Thomas Kristan Schjelderup. His material is derived from individual analyses, personal acquaintance in monasteries of Europe and the Orient, and from literature. The author concludes ascetism is determined like a compromise symptom formation, by reaction predominantly to sadomasochistic instincts. Its effects are that the original need increases as ascetism is practised, and it is harmful because cruelty to one's self provokes cruelty to others.
Psychoanalyse im Schlafwagen (Psychoanalysis in Sleeping Cars).— Review of article by Edward Swift and Charles Boyd in THE PSYCHOANALYTIC REVIEW, V. 15.
Book Reviews: In “The Horse and the Faun,” Andre Maurois recounts a fictitious psychoanalytic procedure which shows no great knowledge of the procedure. “Zeno Cosini,” by Italo Svevo, has a similar incident.
Das Echo der Psychoanalyse (Echos - of Psychoanalysis).—Press comments on Thomas Mann's article in Number 1 of the Psychoanalytische Bewegung, especially epithets of adverse critics. Adverse comments in “The World in the Balance,” by the world-traveler, Dr. Colin Ross. Journalistic comments on Marie Bonaparte's “Fall Lefebvre.” Criticisms of Charles E. Maylen's book, “Freuds tragischer Komplex.” Scheldemy's article on the superficiality of “school psychology.” Psychoanalytic references from the pedagogic viewpoint in “Jahrbuch der Erziehungwis-senschaft und Jugenkunde.” Magazine discussion of the opposed views of Freud and Karl Marx on religious illusions by Professor Julius Shaxel. Moral criticisms of the Catholic press of an announcement of psychoanalytic publications.
Notices of psychoanalytic Institutes and Journals.
Number 3: September and October
Max Eitingon. Ansprache in Oxford (Presidental Address at Oxford Congress of the International Psychoanalytic Association, July 27, 1929).—Genial reminders of the progress and recognition of psychoanalysis since the publication of “Interpretation of Dreams.”
Ridhard Sterba (Vienna). Das Problem des Kunstwerks bei Freud (The Problem of Works of Art as seen by Freud).—A recapitulation of
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the scattered references to art in Freud's works. Relation to problem of neurosis always in foreground. In “Introductory Lectures to Analysis” (Chap. XXIII), and “The Interest in Psychoanalysis,” Freud shows that the gratifications which both creator and observer obtain from an art work are solutions of the same conflicts of wish and taboo which are found in neurosis. The wish-fulfillment is unconscious, for there is regression to an infantile cathexis associated with the real cathexes. The latent content of “œdipus Rex,” and of “Hamlet” had already been referred to by Freud in “The Interpretation of Dreams.” Other literary works, particularly dramas, were analyzed by Rank and other pupils. The relationship of works of art to the actual life of the artist was disclosed by Freud in “A ChildhoodMemory of Leonardo da Vinci.” Among various arts, Freud alludes most commonly to poetry. The creator's own Ego is represented with drama-like disguises, as Hero of the work. In “Poet and Daydreamer,” Freud shows that the pleasure derived from hallucinatory fulfillment in all types of art are common to mankind, and so permit the enjoyer to identify with the artist. There are three technics by which artists make their daydreams pleasurable to others (“Wit and Its Relation to the Unconscious”): (1) alteration of the phantasy; (reduction of the egotistic component and distortion); (2) arrangement of phantasy elements so as to appear a bit of new reality and thus permit a primitive magical form of mastery; (3) the effectiveness of asthetic principles for making beautiful through unconscious release of forepleasure, and this promotes identification. But the effectiveness of the asthetic principle' is over-evaluated; for the source of pleasure is largely the unconscious infantile gratification.
Wilhelm Jensen (1911). Drei unveröffentlichte Briefe (Three Unpublished Letters).—The author of “Gradiva” writes Professor Freud that his scientific discourse on the novel agrees except in a few details with his own concept of the work. Its inspiration was a copy of a Roman relief, for whose original the author searched in the Naples Museum and could only imagine as a Pompeian scene. (Freud later found it was Greek, not Roman, and was in the Vatican Museum.) Jensen agrees with Freud's interpretation of the hero's love. The novel was written immediately after its inspiration and completed with no hesitancy. Jensen answers a question of Freud's, whether he had a sister, in the negative, and adds that the red parasol is the condensation of recollections of his own life of a girl with whom he grew up, and who died at eighteen, and another intimate girl friend years later, who also suddenly died.
Zu Frewts Deutung der Cardeliagestalt (Freud's Interpretation of Cordelia).—Th. R. (Theodor Reik) recalls that Victor Hugo's recognition of the maternal attitude of Cordelia anticipated Freud's.
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Theodor Reik (Berlin). Die sweifache Uberraschung (The Double Surprise).—All commentators, including Kant and Freud, recognize surprise as an indispensable element in the tension of wit. The surprise is determined by both what is said and how it is said, though in some cases the what that releases laughter is unconscious. The effect of double meanings is like the astonishment of a child who does not yet understand an expression used by adults. The effect of surprise lies in the disappointment of a conscious expectation, and the simultaneous fulfillment of an unconscious, aggressive impulse. It is like Freud's account of the child's pleasure in finding the hidden mother. An indispensable supplement to Freud's theory of wit is the sudden abolition of an inhibition, first in the joker, and then, by identification, in the hearer. As the surprise moment which produced traumatic neurosis from a trivial shock, so the primary effect of a wit is fright at insight, into the latent inhibited impulse, followed immediately by defense. The defenses are disposed of by the added pleasure of the fun, and the projection of guilt to the raconteur. These transitions are somewhat like those of manic-depressive states.
Ackerbau und Sexualsymbolik (Agriculture and Sexual Symbolism).— Views of Edward Halen, deceased ethnologist and economist, that agriculture originated from magical phallic impregnation of “mother-earth.” A bibliography of twelve psychoanalytic references to agriculture.
Verm Ekel (Nausea).—Review of a philosophical article by Aurel Kolnai (Vienna), describing nausea as the reaction to an inhibited desire to possess.
Erotik und Reklame (Erotism and Advertising).—Review of a popular article of the Paris psychoanalyst, René Allendy, who warns advertisers that persistent “sex appeal” will pall unless their efforts are directed more at the unconsciouspleasure-sources. The phallicsymbolism of the Eiffel Tower advertisement was reflected in a patient's dream. A monograph of Fritz Griese already in 1924 emphasized that advertising should awaken unconsciousforepleasure.
Fkitz Wittels. Le Grand Amour.—“Flaming love” is only possible in cultures where libido is dammed up as a result of taboo, and its immediate expression is therefore forbidden. Its point of fixation is the separation from the mother. Three examples of lovers whose separations from the mother were traumatic are Tristan, Rousseau, and Dante.
Hans Graber (Bern). Geburi und Tod (Birth and Death).—Reprint of a chapter from the book, “Zeugung, Geburt, und Tod.”
Psychoanalyse bei psychischer Impotent (Psychoanalysis of Psychic Impotence).—Review of a paper by Privatdozent Arthur Kronfeld
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(Berlin), who, though not an analyst, completely confirms the findings of Reich (“Function der Orgasmus”), and emphasizes that psychoanalytic demonstrations are empirical and not theoretical. Tables of psychotherapy show twenty-three cures among forty-three cases of erection impotence, but none among seven cases who were married. The editor appends abstracts of Deutsch's paper on “Frigidity” and Steiner's on “Impotence” at the Oxford Psychoanalytic Congress (1929).
Ewald Bohm. Die Psychoanalyse auf der Weltkonjerens fiir Erziehung in Helsingor (A Report of Psychoanalytic Contributions at the World Conference for Education at Helsingor, Denmark).—Mrs. Behn reported cases of child analysis, and spoke of psychoanalytic criticisms of pedagogy. Mrs. Wolfheim spoke on “The Kindergarten and Psychoanalysis.” Rev. Dr. Pfister spoke of psychoanalysis and religion, emphasizing that by making love possible, adjustment to others is improved. In another paper on technic he states the aim of analysis is not to treat the soul, but a process in the soul, and deprecates complete solution of the positive transference. He recommends child-analysis, and analysis of teachers. Hans Zulliger indicated the group-leader organization which arises in a school, and discussed the teacher's relations to parents. There were other speakers on psychoanalysis.
Das Echo der Psychoanalyse (Echos of Psychoanalysis).—Further extracts from reviews of Thomas Mann's essay (Number 1, this volume).
Adverse views of H. Sand (Heidelberg) on Freud's irreligiosity. A Russian criticism of Freud, by G. H. Gurjew, appraises him as sexual philosopher opposing Marxism, and a splendid atheism tarnished by inadequate materialism. Catholic comments on Gurjew Kaplan's criticism of Kautsky's marxistic views of Freud. Otto Flake contrasts Freud's scientific soul-mechanics and its philosophical distortions. Etienne Pyrebere-Garry censures Freud as social menace. Bernard Guillemin warns poets not to rely on the science of analysis for creative work. Report of Fourth Kongress für Heilpädagogik (April 15, 1928) shows itself “100 percent unpolluted” by analysis; there are a few references to it. Journalistic criticisms of Alexander and Staub's, “The Criminal and His Judges.”
Number 4: November and December
Sigmund Freud. Das Ozeanische Gefiihl.—Chapter I of the book,. “Civilization and Its Discontents.”
Alfred Winterstein (Wien). Motorisches Erleben im schopfer-ischen V or gang (Motor Experience in Creative Events).—Review of psychoanalytic and psychological literature, with emphasis on the close relationship of thought and motor activity. It is not an “imagined idea,”
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but a “disposition” to move, that is the central feature of thought, and especially creative thought. These elements are kinesthetic, not visual, images, though the threshold of consciousness for them cannot be fixed. Music relieves melancholy by kinesthetic stimulations. The author gives an extraordinary summary of citations from many creative artists confirming his views. Such motor expression may prevent neuroses. Creative work is a narcissistic gratification and also an expression of the forepleasure which underlies all esthetics, and utilizes projection and empathy. The artistic effect of gesture, rhyme, refrain, and rythm as well as suckling and cooing show the importance of motor elements. Esthetic pleasure in form is derived from infants' touching; first he touches the breast with lips, then with hand, and this becomes scoptophilic pleasure through kinesthetic movements of the eyes which follow the hand. Thus, through motor pleasure, there can be infantile gratification without visual symbolism.
Eduaed Hitschmann (Wien). Knut Hamsun und die Psychoanalyse (Knut Hamsun and Psychoanalysis).—Though Berendsohn, biographer of Hamsun, acknowledges indebtedness to theoretical psychoanalysis for his understanding, he underestimates how much insightpsychoanalysis may give to the motives of Hamsun's life, and the pleasure he found in his works. Hamsun shows his neurosis in several ways; the castration complex and desire for the mother-ideal predominate in his work. Hitschmann reaches the extremest conclusion: Biography and literary historians can no longer do without an analytic preparation.
“Ein Gespenst aus der Kindheit Knut Hamsuns” (A Ghost from Knut Hamsun's Childhood).—Editorial review of this analysis of Hamsun, written by Hitschmann in 1928.
Das Stabilitätsprinsip in der Psychoanalyse (The Stability Principle in Psychoanalysis).—A review of an article by Dr. phil. et med. Alexander Herzberg (Berlin). Herzberg discusses contemporary origin of stability principles with Hume, Spencer, and Fechner, mentions the same tendencies in physics and chemistry, and discusses its predominance in psychoanalytic theory and modern psychology. He considers the prevalence of these theories to be a good prognostic sign for the future of psychology.
Fritz Wittels. Grosse Hasser (Great Haters).—“Whoever loves, also hates,” says Wittels. These passions are not opposed; for when love is impossible, libido appears in the form of hate. This is illustrated in literature: Anna, in Shakespeare's “Richard III”; Kriemheld in the Nibelung mythology; Zola's “La Bete Humaine “;” Jason and Medea “;” Romeo and Juliet”; Don José and Carmen; Shakespeare's Queen Margaret; Joan of Arc; and biblical Judith; etc. Excessive love is an unconscious love of mother and so great hate is bound to unresolved
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Oedipus complexes. E.g., the assassin of Lincoln. This unconscious motive of the American Revolution is neatly concealed in the story of Rip Van Winkle. The ambivalence of Brutus, according to Plutarch and Shakespeare, is described.
Abstinens, Coitus interruptus, und Angstneurose (Abstinence, Coitis Interruptus, and Anxiety Neurosis).—Views of Freud and Reich on actual neurosis, and the combinations of actual neurosis and psycho-neurosis which require analytic treatment. Abstract of report of Dr. Heinrich Meng, Frankfurt psychoanalyst, on eight years' experience, who confirms Freud's theorem, and reports consistent cure of anxiety neurosis by direct expert sexual instruction. Three hundred cases had no conceptions nor ill effects from contraception, and a third of these used only chemical preventions. The question of frequency of health with complete abstinence is one which can only be answered by analysis, and such case material is rarely forthcoming.
Hans Zulliger (Ittifen-Bern). “Hysteric infolge Verdrängung ethischer Regungen?” (“Hysteria as a Result of Repression of Ethical Impulses?”).—Discussion of a paper by the psychotherapist, Dr. M. Nachmansohn of Lucerne, who cited three cases in which hysteria developed in spite of abundant erotic experience. Dr. Nachmansohn's dream evidence shows little knowledge of “latent content,” and he argues that in the thirty years since Freud's sexual theory was propounded, sexual tolerance has increased, but neurosis has not decreased. Though the main symptom in one of Nachmansohn's cases persisted, there were in general “transference” cures. The author shows very effective knowledge of pre-genital sexuality, latent content of dreams, and the technic of analysis.
Alfred Winterstein (Wien). “Eine game Nation besessen vom Ödipuskomplex” (“A Whole Nation Possessed by the Oedipus Complex”).—Comments on Marcel Prevost's book, “The Virgin Man.” It recounts the story of a French man who attended a German school, whose pupils, from ten to seventeen years old, were taught the “doctrine of Freud” which had obsessed the whole of Germany. The shock to this boy made of him one who must separate his life from women. The complete novel is a beautiful unconscious exposition of infantile factors which produce a typical neurotic character.
Wilhelm Reich (Wien). Die Stellung der Psychoanalyse in der Sowjetunion (The Position of Psychoanalysis in the Soviet Union).— The peculiar lack of a psychoanalytic “movement” in Russia is only to be understood by the special conditions of that country. There is a scientific psychoanalytic society in Moscow, but it is little practised by physicians. After intense interest in 1922 and 1923, psychoanalysis was banned because its study took too much interest from political instruction;
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it is regarded as too “idealistic a discipline,” opposed to Marxism. The Russians are not opposed to psychoanalysis as a science, but to “Freudianism” as philosophy which they believe offers sociological interpretations detrimental to Marxistic materialism. They dislike “Totem and Taboo,” but recognize everywhere the value of “sublimating” sexual energy in economic labor. Psychoanalysis is also criticized because it is a study of the individual, rather than of society, and that it is so biological as to ignore the effects of class on the individual. Reich comments that the Oedipus complex itself is an effect of society on the instincts. The Russians criticise the “ideology” of psychoanalysis because it regards religion as a psychological phenomenon, and not as a result of economic pressures. Psychoanalytic utterances on symbolism, e.g., the symbolism of agriculture, are mistakenly understood to interpret its sole cause. One may speak of two “psychoanalysises,” the scientific, which is not understood in Russia, and the distortions of which are regarded as idealistic social philosophies. In Europe and America, psychoanalysis began to be acknowledged when the science was presented as speculation, by evading the libido theory, etc.; in the Soviet Union the protest is against this philosophization, and there is not such objection to it as pure science. Though psychoanalysis is preeminently an individual therapy, Reich concludes the practical mass interests of the Marxists will inevitably raise the question: individual neurosis therapy or mass prophylaxis, what can you do?
Psychoanalytische Motiv auf einer Hygieneausstellung in Berlin (Psychoanalytic Motive at a Hygiene Exposition in Berlin).—At this exposition for propagandizing mental health, quotations from Freud are placarded, and several of the common infantile sexual traumata and their consequences presented in pictures.
Das Echo der Psychoanalyse (Echos of Psychoanalysis).—The eminent Berlin lawyer and writer on criminology recommends Marie Bonaparte's psychoanalysis of the murderess, Lefebvre, as “of particular interest to every student of jurisprudence who is interested in psychology.” He regards “The Criminal and His Judges” by Alexander and Staub, as proof that psychoanalysis “will be the most significant for criminology of all modern, scientific, psychological methods.” Erich Brok writes on “Psychoanalysis and Religion,” praising psychoanalysis for its attention to the importance of child-parent relationships, and congratulating it that it has now escaped from its early tendency toward instinctual freedom by recognizing that “repression is an imperative duty.” The editor of the “Bewegung” shows how the opposition to psychoanalysis is hidden beneath apparent praise. Dr. Heinrich Meng, Frankfurt analyst, opposes a physician's encouraging extra-mental abstinence when analysis has shown its harmful effects. August Vetter speaks of the significance of sexuality. Further comments on the Helsingor (Denmark) Educational
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Congress. A letter from the lawyer of Maylan gives legal justification for acts which the “Bewegung” had criticised on grounds of chivalry. Heinrich Meng writes on the importance of analysis in various professional services to the young. Ludwig Paneth asks: “Psychoanalysis or psychosynthesis?” Professor R. Herbertz (Bern) discusses, with references to Nietzsche and psychoanalysis, the unconscious disclosures of lies during prosecution of a criminal. Oskar A. H. Schmitz “analyzes” Freud's personality as revolutionary, and unconsciously over-ethical. Kurt Westphal discusses psychoanalysis of musical creations, and believes the creation itself is not to be confused with the process of creation. Eduard Hitschmann states analysis has not yet discovered the cause of somnambulism.
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Hendrick, I. (1933). Die Psychoanalytische Bewegung. Psychoanal. Rev., 20(2):221-232