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PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from pepeasy.pep-web.org. You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:

On IOS:

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On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu

 

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Woolf, M. (1957). Revolution and Drive. Psychoanal. Rev., 44(4):410-432.
   

(1957). Psychoanalytic Review, 44(4):410-432

Revolution and Drive

M. Woolf

Foreword

It is of course, understood that the question of importance of human drives and the part they play in the revolutionary movements of mankind cannot begin to be fully treated within the framework of an article of this kind. It is a matter which might well be the life-work of a social scientist. What I wish to express here are merely thoughts and observations, largely on the basis of my experience during the great Russian Revolution, seen in the light of many years of psychoanalytical work, and the knowledge which results from such work.

I

Freud's psychoanalysis teaches us that human drives provide the impetus for every type of human activity. The question remains how to discover the sources of those drives which create the power that gives rise to humanity's revolutionary movements. At first, the answer seems to present no difficulties. We can hardly doubt that the destructive mass movements, which come into the foreground in times of revolution, receive their foremost impetus from aggressive, destructive drives. What gives food for thought is merely the question of exclusiveness, i.e., whether, apart from aggressive drives, other drives have their part in revolutionary movements—in other words, sexual drives. For we know that human expression finds its driving force and its source in these two types of drives which motivate all human beings.

Since the end of the eighteenth century, human society has been shaken periodically by revolutionary movements which were regularly followed by opposite and counter-revolutionary movements.

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