Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Katan, A. (1946). Experiences with Enuretics. Psychoanal. St. Child, 2:241-255.

(1946). Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2:241-255

Experiences with Enuretics

Anny Katan, M.D.

Enuresis is one of the most frequent neurotic symptoms. Difficulty is apt to arise in the beginning of its study because constitutional disposition as well as various traumata may play a part in it. One often finds in the history of enuretic children that siblings have wet up to the age of five or six; with the siblings the symptom disappeared then, without apparent reason, while in the one child it may have persisted up to the age of ten. I remember one family in which seven out of eight children suffered from enuresis. The parents found it comparatively easy to accept this situation, as they themselves had suffered from the same symptom. There are other cases, however, in which only one child in a family has been unable to achieve bladder control.

Experiences with non-treated cases are contradictory. One frequently hears of cases in which the symptom has been removed by talks, explanations, threats, or punishments; and of others in which the symptom obstinately withstands any attempt at interference. There is a widely accepted view that bedwetting disappears by itself at puberty, especially in girls with the onset of menstruation. This is true in some cases, but unfortunately it is not the rule. As a result of army medical examinations we are now in a position to know better than we did that the number of adult bedwetters is much greater than is commonly supposed; nor is the number of grown-up girls small in whom the symptom continues after the onset of menstruation.

Cases also vary a great deal in regard to the time when the symptom appears. With many children who develop normally at first and are dry at night for some time, enuresis sets in later on. In these cases one can frequently find a traumatic experience preceding the appearance of the symptom; in my experience, these respond most favorably to treatment. There are children, however, whose condition I consider to be far more serious, who have continued to wet from babyhood up to the time of treatment. Then again, some bedwetters can keep dry under certain conditions, e.g., when on a visit, after giving a promise, etc.; or in the company of certain people.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.