Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To use Evernote for note taking…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

Evernote is a general note taking application that integrates with your browser. You can use it to save entire articles, bookmark articles, take notes, and more. It comes in both a free version which has limited synchronization capabilities, and also a subscription version, which raises that limit. You can download Evernote for your computer here. It can be used online, and there’s an app for it as well.

Some of the things you can do with Evernote:

  • Save search-result lists
  • Save complete articles
  • Save bookmarks to articles


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Rank, B. Macnaughton, D. (1950). A Clinical Contribution to Early Ego Development. Psychoanal. St. Child, 5:53-65.

(1950). Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 5:53-65

A Clinical Contribution to Early Ego Development

Beata Rank and Dorothy Macnaughton, M.D.

Not having at our disposal as yet any systematic study of infant development from birth, we are choosing an example from the case histories of our children with atypical development and hope to be able with these data to offer a contribution to the understanding of the formation of psychic structure; namely, how the ego ("a substructure of personality defined by its functions," H. Hartmann) is molded under the impact of reality on the one hand, and of the instinctual drives on the other. With the same material, we shall highlight the vicissitudes of libido and aggression and their forms of expression. This approach, which stresses the significance of the early object relationship (emotional climate) for the understanding of child development, does not question the existence of preparatory autonomous stages of the ego, although for reasons mentioned above it does not include a discussion of individual differences in infants at birth.

A few words to justify our procedure: from the study of this group of atypical children, we have learned that their personality structure represents fragments of various stages of development, showing high achievements of some of the executant functions of the ego, while other manifestations of the ego or instinctual drives remain crippled or on a much lower level (18). These children show manifold individual differences but have in common a disturbance in their relationship to people, manifested in different forms of isolation or withdrawal.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.