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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Greenacre, P. (1979). Reconstruction and the Process of Individuation. Psychoanal. St. Child, 34:121-144.

(1979). Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 34:121-144

Reconstruction and the Process of Individuation

Phyllis Greenacre, M.D.


IT IS MY INTENTION TO DISCUSS CERTAIN VICISSITUDES OF DEVELOPment in the first year of infancy, and to focus especially on the reciprocal processes of separation and individuation. At this early time growth and maturation proceed at an extraordinary pace and can be viewed from many different angles. It is difficult to do justice to the complex set of forces already at work at a time that we used to consider simple, protected, and almost nirvanalike. I hope to indicate some of the ways in which disturbances in separation and individuation affect and may increase later neurotic problems. What I can contribute is drawn from clinical experience in the course of many years of analytic and psychiatric work. I am of course dependent for background knowledge on the psychologists and psychoanalysts as well as the physiologists and pediatricians who have made and are still making careful observational studies of growth and development both of body and behavior in these first years. Such studies have furnished material from many different angles and have yielded important findings. I have been especially stimulated by the work of Winnicott and of Mahler.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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