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The Information icon (an i in a circle) will give you valuable information about PEP Web data and features. You can find it besides a PEP Web feature and the author’s name in every journal article. Simply move the mouse pointer over the icon and click on it for the information to appear.

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Amsterdam, B.K. Levitt, M. (1980). Consciousness of Self and Painful Self-Consciousness. Psychoanal. St. Child, 35:67-83.
  

(1980). Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 35:67-83

Consciousness of Self and Painful Self-Consciousness

Beulah Kramer Amsterdam, Ph.D. and Morton Levitt, Ph.D.

I dote on myself, there is that lot of me and all so

luscious,

Each moment and whatever happens thrills me with

joy.

WALT WHITMAN, Song of Myself

Hold it up sternly—see this it sends back

(who is it? is it you?)

Outside fair costume, within ashes and filth …

Such from one look in this looking-glass ere you

go hence,

Such a result so soon—and from such a beginning!

WALT WHITMAN, A Hand-Mirror

SINCE DARWIN (1872), THE NEGATIVE EMOTION OF SHAME HAS BEEN described as a consequence of a heightened awareness of self. There appears to be a prevailing belief, both in the lay and the psychological literature (Izard, 1978p. 408), that self-consciousness invariably is a painful affect associated with being the center of attention.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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