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Pine, F. (1992). Some Refinements of the Separation-Individuation Concept in Light of Research on Infants. Psychoanal. St. Child, 47:103-116.

(1992). Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 47:103-116

Some Refinements of the Separation-Individuation Concept in Light of Research on Infants

Fred Pine, Ph.D.


The separation-individuation concept, though clinically useful, has been called into question in a critique based on systematic infant research. While an effective rejoinder to the critique can be offered, the critique plus the rejoinder nonetheless require some modifications of the initial separation-individuation concept. Following a summary of the argument, I offer those modifications here.

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