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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Racker, E. (1945). Nunberg, Hermann: Das Schuldgefuehl. (El sentimiento de culpabilidad.) “Imago”, vol. 20, págs. 257-269, 1934.. Rev. psicoanál., 2(4):743-744.

(1945). Revista de Psicoanálisis, 2(4):743-744

Nunberg, Hermann: Das Schuldgefuehl. (El sentimiento de culpabilidad.) “Imago”, vol. 20, págs. 257-269, 1934.

Review by:
E. Racker

Freud diferencia dos formas del sentimiento de culpabilidad: una aparece como temor ante la autoridad externa o sea como miedo a la pérdida de amor; la otra, como temor ante la autoridad interna, o sea como miedo al superyó. El sentimiento de culpabilidad obedece a la vuelta de la agresión contra el propio yo, manifestándose en éste como deseo inconsciente de castigo. De ahí que se emplee frecuentemente el término “necesidad de castigo” por “sentimiento de culpabilidad”, y viceversa. El autor plantea el interrogante de si estos dos conceptos realmente son idénticos.

Las manifestaciones del sentimiento de culpabilidad son múltiples: malestar, tensión, tendencia exagerada a ayudar y a regalar, necesidad de amor, necesidad de castigo, sumisión, obsesión de purificación, etc. Entre estas manifestaciones, también pueden diferenciarse dos grupos: uno, cuyo objeto es el mundo exterior (por ejemplo, la necesidad de amor) y otro, cuyo objeto es el yo (por ejemplo, la necesidad de castigo). Los primeros tienden a reparar el crimen (real o fantaseado), al cual se refiere el sentimiento de culpabilidad por medio de la reconciliación con el mundo exterior; los últimos, por medio del autocastigo.

La investigación del crimen nos conduce primordialmente a la situación edípica, o sea al parricidio. En tiempos prehistóricos (según la hipótesis de Freud) el padre fué muerto y luego devorado por los hijos.

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