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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Rossi, P.L. (1990). Instinct. Rivista Psicoanal., 36(1):126-148.

(1990). Rivista di Psicoanalisi, 36(1):126-148

Historical-Critical Note

Instinct Language Translation

Pier Luigi Rossi

1. For Freud, instinct is one of those “abstract ideas” which “even at the stage of description it is not possible to avoid applying to the material in hand”; these ideas are “derived from somewhere or other, but certainly not from the new observations alone” (1915a, 117).

But today, only these “new observations” (the clinical aspect of Psychoanalysis) ensure our continuity with Freud; as far as the “abstract ideas” are concerned, times have changed to such an extent that considerable historical research is required for his text to be still readable now.

An early contribution to this research was made by Bernfeld (1944), who traced Freud's links with the school of Helmoltz. One of the components of instinct is the idea of push force, and energy, not in a vitalistic sense, but as one of the work requirements imposed on the psychic apparatus.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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