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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

De Masi, F. (2002). Quale Super-Io nella clinica analitica?. Rivista Psicoanal., 48(3):517-535.

(2002). Rivista di Psicoanalisi, 48(3):517-535

ARTICOLI

Quale Super-Io nella clinica analitica?

Franco De Masi

Nella letteratura analitica la patologia del Super-Io viene trattata prevalentemente da una prospettiva genetica. Mentre Freud (1923) ha concepito il Super-Io come un'istanza regolatrice e ordinatrice della vita psichica, collegata strettamente a una buona introiezione delle figure genitoriali, Melanie Klein (1932) ha prospettato un Super-Io infantile essenzialmente sadico che deriverebbe dalla crudeltà e dalla spietatezza delle prime introiezioni.

Diversamente dal Super-Io normale, che permette identificazioni positive con la figura paterna, il Super-Io patologico rimane intriso di aggressività e onnipotenza.

Per la spietatezza e la crudeltà che li contraddistinguono, il Super-Io patologico e quello primitivo sarebbero molto simili.

Questo Super-Io primitivo coincide in gran parte con l'oggetto che giudica il melanconico descritto da Freud (1915) e Abraham (1924).

Avendo presente la complessità della clinica analitica, in questo lavoro intendo sostenere che alcune volte possiamo trovarci di fronte a un Super-Io in cui prevalgono aspetti primitivi, altre volte, invece, possiamo trovarci ad affrontare una struttura psicopatologica che, pur presentando un carattere dominante o intimidatorio, non deve essere considerata un'organizzazione primitiva.

Il problema che desidero approfondire è se il Super-Io patologico sia semplicemente un Super-Io primitivo o non, invece, una struttura che ha ben altre origini e altre potenzialità dinamiche.

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