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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Freud, S. (1890). Psychical (or Mental) Treatment (1890). The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume VII (1901-1905): A Case of Hysteria, Three Essays on Sexuality and Other Works, 281-302.

Freud, S. (1890). [SEG281a1]Psychical (or Mental) Treatment (1890). The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume VII (1901-1905): A Case of Hysteria, Three Essays on Sexuality and Other Works, 281-302

[SEG281a1]Psychical (or Mental) Treatment (1890) Book Information Previous Up Next Language Translation

Sigmund Freud

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[SEG281a2]Editor's Note to "Psychical (or Mental) Treatment (1890)"

[SEG281a3]Psychische Behandlung (Seelenbehandlung)

[SEG281a4](a) German Editions:

[SEG281a5]1890 In Die Gesundheit, ed. R. Kossmann and J. Weiss, 1st ed., 1, 368-384. (Stuttgart, Berlin & Leipzig: Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft.)(1900, 2nd ed.;1905, 3rd ed.)

[SEG281a6]1937 Z. Psychoan. Päd, 11, 133-147

[SEG281a7]1942 G.W., 5, 289-315

[SEG281a8](b) English Translation:

[SEG281a9]‘Psychical (or Mental) Treatment’

[SEG281a10]The present translation, by James Strachey, now appears for the first time and, so far as is known, is the first to be published.

[SEG281a11]Die Gesundheit was a collective work on medicine of a semi-popular character in two volumes with a large number of collaborators. In a letter to Pfister of June 17, 1910 (1963a) Freud says: ‘The book which I put in my children's hands is a popular medical work, Die Gesundheit, to which I myself contributed. It is quite dry and factual.’ Freud's contribution formed part of a section dealing with various methods of treatment. It was reprinted without alteration in the second and third editions of the work, occupying the same pages of the first volume as in the first edition.

[SEG281a12]It was invariably stated, until 1966, that the present paper dated from 1905 (it was given the distinguishing date 1905b in the Standard Edition): the 1905 edition of Die Gesundheit having been the only one to be examined.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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