Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To quickly return to the issue’s Table of Contents from an article…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

You can go back to to the issue’s Table of Contents in one click by clicking on the article title in the article view. What’s more, it will take you to the specific place in the TOC where the article appears.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Ikonen, P. (2002). The basic tools of psychoanalysis. Scand. Psychoanal. Rev., 25(1):12-19.

(2002). Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, 25(1):12-19

The basic tools of psychoanalysis

Pentti Ikonen, Phil-Mag.

The objective of psychoanalysis is to help the analysand make the contents of his or her psyche conscious to him- or herself. In this paper, the author identifies four tools central in the attempts to reach this goal: (1) the analysand's self-observation; (2) the analyst's assistance in identifying the obstacles to self-observation (i.e., resistance analysis); (3) the analysand's bringing unconscious contents into the sphere of self-observation with the help of the analyst's interpretations; (4) turning the analysand's tendency to account for the listener into an object of self-observation (i.e., the analysis of transference). Of these tools, the first is regarded as the most fundamental; all methodological instruments used in psychoanalysis aim at enhancing the scope of the analysand's self-observation. Some difficulties in keeping this aim are identified, and the analysand's autonomy in this work is pointed out, leading to the conclusion that the analysand never becomes changed in an analysis; the analysand might, however, change him- or herself as a consequence of a newly-won self-observation.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.