Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To zoom in or out on PEP-Web…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

Are you having difficulty reading an article due its font size? In order to make the content on PEP-Web larger (zoom in), press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the plus sign (+). Press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the minus sign (-) to make the content smaller (zoom out). To go back to 100% size (normal size), press Ctrl (⌘Command on the Mac) + 0 (the number 0).

Another way on Windows: Hold the Ctrl key and scroll the mouse wheel up or down to zoom in and out (respectively) of the webpage. Laptop users may use two fingers and separate them or bring them together while pressing the mouse track pad.

Safari users: You can also improve the readability of you browser when using Safari, with the Reader Mode: Go to PEP-Web. Right-click the URL box and select Settings for This Website, or go to Safari > Settings for This Website. A large pop-up will appear underneath the URL box. Look for the header that reads, “When visiting this website.” If you want Reader mode to always work on this site, check the box for “Use Reader when available.”

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Makari, G.J. (2000). Change in Psychoanalysis: Science, Practice, and the Sociology of Knowledge. Changing Ideas In A Changing World: The Revolution in Psychoanalysis. Essays in Honour of Arnold Cooper, 255-262.

Makari, G.J. (2000). Change in Psychoanalysis. Changing Ideas In A Changing World: The Revolution in Psychoanalysis. Essays in Honour of Arnold Cooper, 255-262

Change in Psychoanalysis: Science, Practice, and the Sociology of Knowledge Book Information Previous Up

George J. Makari, M.D.

Psychoanalysis has been changing, and so it seems natural and important to consider how and why change takes place in our discipline. Of course, this is not a new question; it has been asked at crucial junctures by psychoanalysts since Freud. And as psychoanalysis grew as a cultural force, others — philosophers of science, sociologists, and historians — have weighed in on the matter. In this paper, I shall survey some of these differing accounts, and reflect upon what these differing perspectives tell us about the nature of the psychoanalytic enterprise.

Psychoanalytic Change and Scientific Knowledge

For change to be recognizable it must be measured against a background, a baseline. Perhaps the most common baseline by which change in psychoanalysis has been measured has been by comparison to science. If psychoanalysis is a science, then the patterns of change it manifests should correspond with change in science. But what characterizes change in science? How do individual scientists change theories? By what process does a scientific community adopt as true, or reject as false or anomalous, the changes proposed by an individual scientist? Does communal change occur by cumulative accretion or revolution? These are crucial interrelated questions for those who study the history and philosophy of science.


[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.