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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Freud, S. (1906). Letter from Sigmund Freud to C. G. Jung, April 11, 1906. The Freud/Jung Letters: The Correspondence Between Sigmund Freud and C. G. Jung, 3.

Freud, S. (1906). Letter from Sigmund Freud to C. G. Jung, April 11, 1906. The Freud/Jung Letters: The Correspondence Between Sigmund Freud and C. G. Jung, 3

Letter from Sigmund Freud to C. G. Jung, April 11, 1906 Book Information Previous Up Next

Sigmund Freud

1 F

11 April 1906, IX. Berggasse 191

Dear colleague,2

Many thanks for sending me your Diagnostic Association Studies,3 which in my impatience I had already acquired. Of course your latest paper, “Psychoanalysis and Association Experiments,” pleased me most, because in it you argue on the strength of your own experience that everything I have said about the hitherto unexplored fields of our discipline is true. I am confident that you will often be in a position to back me up, but I shall also gladly accept correction.

Yours sincerely,4 DR. FREUD

Notes from Sigmund Freud to C. G. Jung, April 11, 1906 to "Letter from Sigmund Freud to C. G. Jung, April 11, 1906"

1 The printed letterhead (on a small sheet, 5¼ x 6¾”) has been simplified for this edition. For the full heading, see the facsimile of this letter on facing page. “IX.” means Vienna's ninth Bezirk, or district. Hereafter, “Vienna” is supplied, unless Freud used unheaded paper. At 52 F he began using a different letterhead.

2 Holograph: Geehrter Herr College, a rather formal salutation; Freud used it with occasional variations until 18 F.

3 Diagnostische Assoziationsstudien: Beiträge zur experimentellen Psychopathologie, Vol. I (Leipzig, 1906), containing six studies by Jung and other doctors at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Zürich (i.e., Burghölzli Hospital), edited by Jung, who had directed the research.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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