Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Oremland, J.D. (1987). Chapter 8: Dreams in the Borderline and Schizophrenic Personality. The Interpretations of Dreams in Clinical Work, 105-124.

Oremland, J.D. (1987). Chapter 8: Dreams in the Borderline and Schizophrenic Personality. The Interpretations of Dreams in Clinical Work , 105-124

Chapter 8: Dreams in the Borderline and Schizophrenic Personality Book Information Previous Up Next

Jerome D. Oremland, M.D.

The most significant conceptual shift regarding borderline personality came in 1967 with Otto Kernberg's work on borderline personality organization. Emphasizing concepts derived from Edith Jacobson's (1964) representational world and Melanie Klein's object relationship orientation (Klein, 1932; Klein, Heimann, and Money-Kyrie, 1955), Kernberg gave central significance to disturbances in self and object representations in borderline functioning. His emphasis on part and polarized self and object representations with threatened self-object fusion refined the psychoanalytic definition of the “fragile” ego of the borderline. Kernberg's delineation of the central role of splitting and its allied primitive defensive mechanisms—externalization, projective identification, reversal, reaction formation, negation, and denial—in borderline defense functioning expanded and detailed the imprecise concept of “failure of repression” in these severe psychopathologies. Kernberg, fully mindful of the caution to be exercised when parallels are drawn between development and psychopathology, demonstrated correlations between the borderline's self and object representational defects and Margaret Mahler's developmental descriptions of the emerging sense of individuality (Mahler, 1971; Mahler, Pine, and Bergman, 1975).

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2019, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.