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Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and Loss: Volume II: Separation, Anxiety and Anger. The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 95:1-429. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

(1973). The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 95:1-429. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

Attachment and Loss: Volume II: Separation, Anxiety and Anger

John Bowlby


  Preface xi
  Acknowledgments xvii
1 Prototypes of Human Sorrow 3
  Responses of young children to separation from mother 3
  Conditions leading to intense responses 6
  Conditions mitigating the intensity of responses 16
  Presence or absence of mother figure: a key variable 22
2 The Place of Separation and Loss in Psychopathology 25
  Problem and perspective 25
  Separation anxiety and other forms of anxiety 30
  A challenge for theory 30
3 Behaviour with and without Mother: Humans 33
  Naturalistic observations 33
  Experimental Studies 39
  Ontogeny of responses to separation 52
4 Behaviour with and without Mother: Non-human Primates 57
  Naturalistic observations 57
  Early experimental studies 60
  Further studies by Hinde and Spencer-Booth 69
5 Basic Postulates in Theories of Anxiety and Fear 77
  Anxiety allied to fear 77
  Models of motivation and their effects on theory 79
  Puzzling phobia or natural fear 83
6 Forms of Behaviour Indicative of Fear 87
  An empirical approach 87
  Withdrawal behaviour and attachment behaviour 89
  Feeling afraid and its variants: feeling alarmed and feeling anxious 92
7 Situations that Arouse Fear in Humans 96
  A difficult field of study 96
  Fear-arousing situations: the first year 99
  Fear-arousing situations: the second and later years 105
  Compound situations 118
  Fear behaviour and the development of attachment 119
8 Situations that Arouse Fear in Animals 124
  Natural clues to potential danger 124
  Fear behaviour of non-human primates 127
  Compound situations 134
  Fear, attack, and exploration 136
9 Natural Clues to Danger and Safety 138
  Better safe than sorry 138
  Potential danger of being alone 142
  Potential safety of familiar companions and environment 146
  Maintaining a stable relationship with the familiar environment: a form of homeostasis 148
10 Natural Clues, Cultural Clues, and the Assessment of Danger 151
  Clues of three kinds 151
  Real danger: difficulties of assessment 153
  ‘Imaginary’ dangers 156
  Cultural clues learnt from others 158
  Continuing role of the natural clues 161
  Behaviour in disaster 166
11 Rationalization, Misattribution, and Projection 169
  Difficulties in identifying situations that arouse fear 169
  Misattribution and the role of projection 172
  The case of Schreber: a re-examination 174
12 Fear of Separation 178
  Hypotheses regarding its development 178
  Need for two terminologies 182
13 Some Variables responsible for ndividual Differences 187
  Constitutional variables 187
  Experiences and processes that reduce susceptibility to fear 191
  Experiences and processes that increase susceptibility to fear 196
14 Susceptibility to Fear and the Availability of Attachment Figures 201
  Forecasting the availability of an attachment figure 201
  Working models of attachment figures and of self 203
  The role of experience in determining working models 207
  A note on use of the terms ‘mature’ and ‘immature’ 209
15 Anxious Attachment and Some Conditions that Promote it 211
  ‘Overdependency’ or anxious attachment 211
  Anxious attachment of children reared without a permanent mother figure 215
  Anxious attachment after a period of separation or of daily substitute care 220
  Anxious attachment following threats of abandonment or suicide 226
16 ‘Overdependency’ and the Theory of Spoiling 237
  Some contrasting theories 237
  Studies of ‘overdependency’ and its antecedents 240
17 Anger, Anxiety, and Attachment 245
  Anger: a response to separation 245
  Anger: functional and dysfunctional 246
  Anger, ambivalence, and anxiety 253
18 Anxious Attachment and the ‘Phobias’ of Childhood 258
  Phobia, pseudophobia, and anxiety state 258
  ‘School phobia’ or school refusal 261
  Two classical cases of childhood phobia: a reappraisal 283
  Animal phobias in childhood 289
19 Anxious Attachment and ‘Agoraphobia’ 292
  Symptomatology and theories of ‘agoraphobia’ 292
  Pathogenic patterns of family interaction 299
  ‘Agoraphobia’, bereavement, and depression 309
  A note on response to treatment 310
20 Omission, Suppression, and Falsification of Family Context 313
21 Secure Attachment and the Growth of Self-reliance 322
  Personality development and family experience 322
  Studies of adolescents and young adults 328
  Studies of young children 350
  Self-reliance and reliance on others 359
22 Pathways for the Growth of Personality 363
  The nature of individual variation: alternative models 363
  Developmental pathways and homeorhesis 366
  One person's pathway: some determinants 369
I Separation Anxiety: Review of Literature 375
II Psychoanalysis and Evolution Theory 399
III Problems of Terminology 404
  References 409


In the preface to the first volume of this work I describe the circumstances in which it was begun.

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