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Mirwis, A.T. (1987). Carl Jung and Lord Montagu Norman: A Failed Consultation. Am. Imago, 44(2):159-169.

(1987). American Imago, 44(2):159-169

Carl Jung and Lord Montagu Norman: A Failed Consultation

Arnold T. Mirwis

This paper brings attention to the fact that Montagu Norman, later the Governor of the Bank of England, once consulted Jung for professional help, and comments on the consequences of this visit. The consultation was investigated in depth by Andrew Boyle after studying the diaries of Norman and interviewing people who had been close to him. The author of this paper (a financial advisor with a keen interest in international economics) became aware that the consultation took place during a critical period for Freud and Jung. An earlier biography of Norman by Sir Henry Clay only touched on the consultation. Since the two books lean heavily towards economics and politics, they were not reviewed to any extent by the medical profession. Vincent Brome dwelt on the consultation in his biography of Jung, drawing on Boyle's efforts; but his dates are mixed up and his discussion contains inaccuracies.

Montagu Collet Norman, later Lord Norman of St. Clere, was born on September 6th 1871, became a director of the Bank of England in 1907 and Governor in 1920. He was Governor until 1944 while the bank was still a private company (it was nationalised by the Labor government in 1948). Norman was at the helm of Englands finances during one of the most turbulent times in history. He became a man of power and influence but also a man of mystery due to his extreme privacy. His personality was simultaneously shy and prickly; he could swing from being very charming to being very cutting.

Norman was born into a wealthy upper-class family.

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