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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Forman, M. (1976). Narcissistic Personality Disorders and the Oedipal Fixations. Ann. Psychoanal., 4:65-92.

(1976). Annual of Psychoanalysis, 4:65-92

II Clinical Theory

Narcissistic Personality Disorders and the Oedipal Fixations

Max Forman, M.D.

Since the publication of Kohut's The Analysis of the Self (1971), the differential diagnosis of oedipal character neuroses (oedipal fixations) and narcissistic personality disorders has become not only of great theoretical interest but also of practical clinical importance.

There is little doubt that in past years we have made diagnostic and therapeutic errors leading to confusion and questions about the basic findings and efficacy of psychoanalysis among both patients and analysts. A number of patients with dominant primary narcissistic pathology simply did not fit well into oedipal dynamics and fixations, and, yet, very often we attempted to force them into a procrustean bed.

It is just such unsatisfactory conditions that produce in any scientific profession a climate for new discoveries. Over a number of years, Kohut (1959, 1966, 1968, 1971) has responded to this dilemma by the theoretical and clinical description of a new diagnostic entity, the narcissistic personality disorder. The increased knowledge we have gained from a broad spectrum of analyzable patients (excluding delinquents, borderline psychotics, and psychotics) should provide us with a greater degree of confidence in predicting good analytic results in more patients.

My purpose here is to explore the problem of differential diagnosis.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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