Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
:
Login
Tip: To see Abram’s analysis of Winnicott’s theories…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

In-depth analysis of Winnicott’s psychoanalytic theorization was conducted by Jan Abrams in her work The Language of Winnicott. You can access it directly by clicking here.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Beiser, H.R. (1982). Styles of Supervision Related to Child-Analysis Training and the Gender of the Supervisor. Ann. Psychoanal., 10:57-76.

(1982). Annual of Psychoanalysis, 10:57-76

Styles of Supervision Related to Child-Analysis Training and the Gender of the Supervisor

Helen R. Beiser, M.D.

TABLE 1 Characteristics of Core Supervisors (in percentage agreed upon by all, or by all but one student)

    Category
 

Item

Women N = 5 Men N = 5 Non-child Analysts N = 6 Child Analysts N = 4
1. Makes helpful suggestions and corrections

100

100

100

100

2. No trouble understanding student's patient because of patient's sex

100

100

100

100

3. Able to communicate ideas to student in understandable ways

100

80

83

100

4. No trouble understanding patient because of cultural and religious factors

80

100

100

75

5. Sensitive to childhood origins of transference manifestations of the patient

100

80

100

75

6. Sensitive to transference manifestations as projection of intrapsychic conflict

80

100

100

75

7. Interested in the student as a person

100

80

100

75

8. Willing to admit errors

80

80

83

100

9. Sensitive to student's transference to the supervisor

80

80

83

75

10. Enjoys teaching, or the supervisory situation

80

80

 

100

11. Freely discusses own opinions with student

100

   

100

12. Sensitive to patient's transference in student's presentation  

80

83

 
13. Verbally fluent, with affect and humor

80

 

83

 
14. Traces long-term patterns in analytic material  

83

   
15. Supports variations and flexibility of technique within limits of analytic situation

80

 

83

 
16. Interested in the therapeutic alliance the student sets up with the patient

80

 

83

 
17. Seems to have a strong urge to be helpful

80

 

83

 
18. Able to delineate student's learning problems  

80

 

75

19. Sensitive to the effect of the supervisory situation on the student

80

    75
20. Aware of the meaning of external relationships in the life of the patient

80

 

83

 
21. Shows awareness of and concern for Institute's administrative regulations

80

     
   Total, characteristic

18

12

16

13

   Total, also true of other supervisors

12

6

5

12

  Total, not uniformly true of other supervisors

3

0

2

0

TABLE 2 Uncharacteristic Items in Core Supervisors (in percentage agreed upon by all, or by all but one student)

    Category
  Item Women N = 5 Men N = 5 Nonchild Analysts N = 6 Child Analysts N = 4
1. Suggests techniques that would disregard the patient's striving for autonomy

100

80

100

75

2. Somewhat overly impressed by effect of supervision on the patient's progress

100

80

83

100

3. Tends to be careless about time arrangements for supervision

80

100

100

75

4. Remarks tend to be diffuse, poorly organized

100

80

83

100

5. Tends to use case material mostly as a takeoff for theoretical discussions

100

80

100

75

6. Tends to overidentify with student's difficulties

100

80

100

75

7. Encourages use of nonanalytic techniques  

100

83

75

8. Has trouble differentiating countertransference from other errors in technique

80

   

75

9. More interested in drives and unconscious defenses than in ego mechanisms and resistances  

80

 

75

10. Inclined to be dramatic or intense

80

 

83

 
11. Tends actively to manage patient through the student

80

 

83

 
12. Not very interested in phallic material of the patient

80

 

75

 
13. Emphasizes the intellectual or abstract aspects of the patient's communications

80

 

100

 
14. Expects quick improvement in patient

100

   

100

15. Tends to jump to conclusions on meager evidence  

80

100

 
16. Disregards student's striving for autonomy

80

   

75

17. Tends to blame student for patient's lack of progress

80

     
18. Supervisory technique tends to be stereotyped

80

     
19. Personal biases sometimes interfere with accepting student's ideas

80

     
   Total, Uncharacteristic

16

9

11

12

   Total, also true of other supervisors

7

3

3

10

TABLE 3 Items Not Related to Categories

  Individual Differences   Few Scored Consistently
1. Expresses few if any research interests 1 Tends to give suggestions quickly
2. Tends to permit student to control the supervisory situation 2. Rather cautious in drawing conclusions from material presented
3. Stresses the recognition of structural changes in patients 3. Sets up a learning alliance with student
4. Conveys the importance of developmental-phase-related problems of the student's patient 4. Tends to hear in the patient's material preconceived dynamic patterns
5. Tends to concentrate on case material with rare mention of theoretical framework 5. Holds strongly to his own point of view and doesn't allow much discussion
6. Seems intellectually brilliant, original    
7. Tends to be competitive with student    
8. Tends to push student to learn    
9. Responds primarily to immediate detailed material of the patient    
10. Does not always relate theoretical concepts to the clinical material    
11. Tends to emphasize deep unconscious material in dreams    
12. Concentrates on dependency material of the patient    

TABLE 4 Comparisons of Students with Supervisors which Relate to Child-Analysis Training (restatement for supervisors in parentheses)

Characteristic for Both Child-Analyst Student and Supervisor Uncharacteristic for both Child-Analyst Student and Supervisor
1. Able to identify with the supervisor in the service of learning (Able to delineate the student's learning problems) 1. Tends to push patient to grow (Expects quick improvement in patient)
2. Spontaneously able to observe own behavior and note its effect on patient (Sensitive to the effect of the supervisory situation on the student)    
3. Inclined to be dramatic or intense in presentation of material    
4. Tends actively to manage the patient (Tends actively to manage the patient through the student)    
Characteristic for Child-Analysis Student and for Non-Child-Analyst Supervisor Uncharacteristic for Child-Analysis Student and for Non-Child-Analyst Supervisor
1. Verbally fluent, with affect and humor 1. Tends to jump to conclusions on meager evidence
2. Can trace long-term as well as hour-to-hour patterns in analytic material (Traces long-term patterns in analytic material) 2. Emphasizes the intellectual or abstract in communications with patient (Emphasizes the intellectual or abstract aspects of patient's communications)
3. Able to be flexible or improvise within the limits of the analytic situation (Supports variations and flexibility of technique within the limits of the analytic situation)    
4. Sets up a therapeutic alliance with patient (Interested in the therapeutic alliance the student sets up with the patient)    
5. Seems to have a strong urge to be helpful    
6. Tends to neglect phallic strivings (Not very interested in phallic material of the patient)    
7. Tends to be particularly attentive to deepest drives and unconscious defenses (More interested in drives and unconscious defenses than in ego mechanisms and resistances)    

TABLE 5 Comparisons of Child-Analysis Students with Supervisors Not Related to Child-Analysis Training (restatement for supervisors in parentheses)

Characteristic for Child-Analysis Student; Supervisors Showed Individual Differences or Few Scored Uncharacteristic for Child-Analysis Student; Supervisors Showed Individual Differences or Few Scored
1. Seems intellectually brilliant, original 1. Presentation tends to be stereotyped (Supervisory technique tends to be stereotyped)
2. Able to recognize structural changes in patients (Stresses the recognition of structural changes in patients) 2. Psychologically naive (Does not always relate theoretical concepts to clinical material)
3. Tends to intervene or interpret quickly (Tends to give suggestions quickly) 3. Tends to hear in the patient's material preconceived dynamic patterns
4. Tends to be competitive with supervisor (Tends to be competitive with student) 4. Tends to emphasize deep unconscious material in dreams
  Characteristic for Child-Analysis Student; Uncharacteristic of All Supervisors 5. Rather slow in drawing conclusions from material presented (Rather cautious in drawing conclusions from material presented)
1. Tends to attribute most subsequent behavior in patient to effects of interpretation (Somewhat overly impressed by the effect of supervision on patient's progress) 6. Tends to permit patient to direct the analysis (Tends to permit student to control the supervisory situation)
2. Tends to be careless about preparation or promptness for supervision (Tends to be careless about time arrangements for supervision) Uncharacteristic for Child-Analysis Student; Uncharacteristic of All Supervisors
    1. Tends to be diffuse, poorly organized
Characteristic for Child-Analysis Student; Characteristic of All Supervisors 2. Tends to use case material mostly as a take-off for theoretical discussions
1. No trouble understanding patient because of cultural and religious factors    
2. Very sensitive to transference meaning of patient's material (Sensitive to student's transference to the supervisor)    
3. No trouble understanding the patient because of patient's sex    

TABLE 6 Test of Assumptions Relating to Child-Analysis Training

A. Assumed Characteristics of Child-Analyst Supervisors
    WCA WNCA MCA MNCA Actual
1. Conveys the importance of developmental-phase-related problems of student's patient + + + + Individual differences
2. Seems to have a strong urge to be helpful + + + + Non-child supervisors
3. Tends to overidentify with student's difficulties + + + + All uncharacteristic
4. Responds to immediate detailed material of patient + + +   Individual differences
5. Tends to concentrate on case material with rare mention of theoretical framework + +   + Individual differences
6. Tends to give suggestions quickly + + +   Few scored
7. Concentrates on dependency material of the patient   + + + Individual differences
8. Tends to permit student to control the supervisory situation +   +   Individual differences
9. Interested in the student as a person +   +   All characteristic
10. Is willing to admit errors +   +   All characteristic
Total 10 6 9 5  
B. Assumed Characteristics of Non-Child-Analyst Supervisors
    WCA WNCA MCA MNCA Actual
1. Emphasizes the intellectual or abstract aspects of patient's communications + + +   Uncharacteristic
2. Tends to use case material mostly as a takeoff for theoretical discussions +   + + All uncharacteristic
3. Disregards student's striving for autonomy + + +   True
4. Is more interested in drives and unconscious defenses than in ego mechanisms and resistances + + +   True
5. Suggests techniques that would disregard the patient's striving for autonomy + + +   All uncharacteristic
6. Is sensitive to transference manifestations as projections of intrapsychic conflict in the patient   +   + All characteristic
Total 5 5 5 2  
Key: WCA = woman child analyst      WNCA = woman non-child analyst          
  MCA = man child analyst      MNCA = man non-child analyst          

TABLE 7 Test of Assumptions Relating to Gender of Supervisor

A. Assumed Characteristics of Women Supervisors
    WCA WNCA MCA MNCA Actual
1. Conveys the importance of developmental-phase-related problems of student's patient + + + + Individual differences
2. Tends to concentrate on case material with rare mention of theoretical framework + + + + Individual differences
3. Is aware of the meaning of external relationships in the life of the patient   + + + True
4. Tends to overidentify with student's difficulties + + +   All uncharacteristic
5. Has few research interests + +     Individual differences
6. Is interested in the student as a person + +     All characteristic
Total. 5 6 4 3  
B. Assumed Characteristics of Men Supervisors
    WCA WNCA MCA MNCA Actual
1. Tends to use case material as a takeoff for theoretical discussion + + + + All uncharacteristic
2. Tends to be competitive with student + + +   Individual differences
3. Expects quick improvement in patient + + +   True
4. Disregards student's striving for autonomy + + +   True
5. Holds strongly to his own point of view and doesn't allow much discussion + +     Few scored
6. Sometimes allows personal biases to interfere with accepting student's ideas + +     True
Total. 6 6 4 1  
Key: WCA = woman child analyst          
  MCA = man child analyst          
  WNCA = woman non-child analyst          
  MNCA = man non-child analyst          

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2019, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.