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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Holt, R.R. (1982). The Manifest and Latent Meanings of Metapsychology. Ann. Psychoanal., 10:233-255.

(1982). Annual of Psychoanalysis, 10:233-255

The Manifest and Latent Meanings of Metapsychology

Robert R. Holt, Ph.D.

There is a good deal of confusion on the question of what metapsychology is. Marie Jahoda (1977p. 93) has summed it up admirably:

according to Jones [1955p. 185] it implies “a comprehensive description of any mental process,” while David Rapaport [Rapaport and Gill, 1959pp. 795-796] reads it to mean “the study of the assumptions upon which the system of psychoanalytic theory is based”; in another publication [1960], however, he identified metapsychology as the “principles in psychoanalytic theory.” Hartmann [1964p. 328], who apparently felt uneasy about the term, defines it as theory on the highest level of abstraction. Strachey [1957p. 105], in the editorial introduction to the papers on metapsychology, uses the slightly odd phrase “views on psychological theory” to characterise metapsychology, obviously implying something different from the theory itself. Hilgard [1962] seems to suggest that metapsychology is a collection of Freud's models of man, and Laplanche and Pontalis [1973p. 249] say that “metapsychology constructs an ensemble of conceptual models which are more or less far-removed from empirical reality.”


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