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Levin, F.M. Vuckovich, D.M. (1987). Brain Plasticity, Learning, and Psychoanalysis: Some Mechanisms of Integration and Coordination within the Central Nervous System. Ann. Psychoanal., 15:49-96.
   

(1987). Annual of Psychoanalysis, 15:49-96

Brain Plasticity, Learning, and Psychoanalysis: Some Mechanisms of Integration and Coordination within the Central Nervous System

F. M. Levin, M.D. and D. M. Vuckovich, M.D.

Introduction

This paper is the fourth in a series that explores ways of integrating neurological and psychoanalytic research. As do a number of other authors (Kandel, 1984; Lehtonen, 1980; Reiser, 1984; Winson, 1985), we believe that these two domains can and eventually will be bridged as the phenomena that underlie mind/brain operations are better understood.

The first paper (Levin, 1972/1973) explores the relationship between neurological motivational systems and psychoanalysis, and is organized around the concept of a line of development for pleasure. As summarized by Grinker (1975) the identified pleasures fall into a developmental hierarchy as follows: (1) the satisfaction of primary needs; (2) the mastery of anxiety based on a series of internal and external danger situations; and (3) the mastery of complex meanings and values. The work of Bard (1934), Cannon (1927), James (1890), Lange and James (1922), McClean (1985), and Papez (1937) is covered, along with the clarifications provided by Hebb (1955), Olds (1956, 1958, 1969), Penfield (1958), Pribram (1960), Schildkraut and Kety (1967), Valenstein (1968), and others.

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