Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Smith, H.F. (1993). The Analytic Surface and the Discovery of Enactment. Ann. Psychoanal., 21:243-255.

(1993). Annual of Psychoanalysis, 21:243-255

The Analytic Surface and the Discovery of Enactment

Henry F. Smith, M.D.

The concept of the analytic surface, which has been with us since Freud's earliest clinical writings, has recently received notice as a means of identifying the focus of the analyst's attention and interventions. Thus Gray (1986) writes, “I regard as an optimum surface for interpretative interventions a selection of those elements in the material that may successfully illustrate for analysands that when they were speaking, they encountered a conflict over something being revealed, which caused them involuntarily and unknowingly to react in identifiably defensive ways” (p. 253).

Levy and Inderbitzin (1990) have borrowed Gray's notion of the “choice of a surface” to define the choices other analysts (Gill, 1982; Kris, 1982; Schwaber, 1986) make in identifying their own surfaces for interpretation. Inderbitzin (1990) suggests that such an approach may help elucidate the distinction between observation and inference.

In an effort to explore further the relationship between the analyst's attention and the patient's attention, including the patient's attention to the analyst's use of the surface, I highlight in this paper certain aspects of the meaning and value of the concept of the analytic surface, which I then illustrate with a clinical example.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.