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Menninger, K.A. (1954). Psychological Aspects of the Organism Under Stress— Part I the Homeostatic Regulatory Function of the Ego. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 2:67-106.

(1954). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 2:67-106

Psychological Aspects of the Organism Under Stress— Part I the Homeostatic Regulatory Function of the Ego

Karl A. Menninger, M.D.


The urge toward the formulations here presented came from the author's convictions regarding the usefulness of the Freudian concepts in clinical practice, and from dissatisfactions both with current psychiatric nosologies and with the loose, unsystematized state of the concept of defense measures. The author, in company with many colleagues who not only treat patients but teach others to treat them, found himself continuously faced with confusion on the part of students as to what was symptom and what was syndrome, and as to what the various forms of mental illness might be called that would have the same meaning to all colleagues in a particular hospital and in other cities and countries.

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