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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Greenson, R.R. (1954). Problems of Identification—Introduction. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 2:197-199.

(1954). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 2:197-199

Problems of Identification—Introduction

Ralph R. Greenson, M.D.

Problems of identification began to come into prominence in the psychoanalytic literature ever since the publication of Freud's Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego in 1921, in which he presented a survey of his thinking on the subject. Actually the metapsychological basis for his views were already described in his paper "On Narcissism: An Introduction, " published in 1914. In "Mourning and Melancholia" (1917) Freud discussed certain normal and pathological outcomes which occur when one has lost a love object. Freud then summarized his findings in The Ego and the Id (1923) and also attempted to extend his formulations to include the concepts of instinctual defusion, bisexuality and ambivalence. Karl Abraham's paper, "A Short Study of the Development of the Libido Viewed in the Light of Mental Disorders" (1925), was also an important landmark in the endeavors to understand the problems of normal and pathological identifications.

In more recent times, problems of identification have occupied psychoanalysts in their attempts to fathom the dynamics and metapsychology of early ego functions and dysfunctions.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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