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Engel, G.L. Reichsman, F. (1956). Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Depressions in an Infant with a Gastric Fistula—A Contribution to the Problem of Depression. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 4:428-452.

(1956). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 4:428-452

Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Depressions in an Infant with a Gastric Fistula—A Contribution to the Problem of Depression

George L. Engel, M.D. and Franz Reichsman, M.D.

During a nine-month period we studied an infant with congenital atresia of the esophagus, surgically produced gastric and esophageal fistulas, marasmus, and a depression. After recovery from the depression and the marasmic state, we encountered a striking behavioral pattern which we have called the depression-withdrawal reaction.

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